# Analysis and Experiment of Laser Wireless Power Transmission Based on Photovoltaic Panel

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

^{2}, the conversion efficiency of crystalline silicon can reach 35.85%. This technology not only provides power for unmanned aerial vehicles and boats but also improves their endurance [15,16].

## 2. Output Characteristics of the Photovoltaic Panel

_{ph}is the cell photocurrent. The photocurrent source is connected in parallel with a reverse diode, the current of which is denoted by I

_{D}. The intrinsic shunt resistance of the cell is denoted by R

_{sh}. R

_{s}denotes the series resistance of the cell. I is the output current and the corresponding output voltage is V. The relationship between the current I and voltage V in the equivalent circuit model can be determined as follows:

_{SC}denotes the short circuit current (A), T denotes the operating temperature (K), T

_{r}denotes the nominal temperature (298.15 K), K

_{i}denotes the short circuit current temperature coefficient (A/K), I

_{r}denotes the laser irradiation (W/m

^{2}), I

_{0}denotes the reverse saturation current of photovoltaic cells (A), A denotes the diode quality factor, q denotes the electron charge (C, which generally takes a value of 1.602 × 10

^{–19}C), K denotes the Boltzmann constant (J/K, which generally takes a value of 1.381 × 10

^{–23}J/K), and V

_{t}denotes the thermal voltage (V).

_{0}changes along with the cell temperature. The relationship between these factors can be expressed as:

_{rs}represents the reverse saturation current of the photoelectric panel and is computed as [18,19,20]:

_{rs}denotes the photoelectric panel reverse saturation current (A), E

_{g0}denotes the bandgap of semiconductor energy (which generally takes a value of 1 (eV)), and V

_{OC}denotes the open circuit voltage (V).

^{2}are shown in Figure 3. The model shown in Figure 3 is expressed as 5 photovoltaic cells connected in series, which are irradiated by a laser with an illuminance value of 300 W/m

^{2}when the temperature is 25 °C. After photoelectric conversion, electric energy will be output through the positive and negative terminals of the model. The electric energy can be expressed in the form of current, voltage, or power. The format of the specific output will be determined by the measuring equipment connected to the model. When the model is connected to an ammeter, the current value will be displayed, and so on. Changing the input temperature and illuminance values will result in different electric energy output. Therefore, this model can be used as a basic unit to build larger and more complex photovoltaic panels in subsequent simulation chapters.

## 3. Laser Energy Distribution

_{0}/w(z)enotes the amplitude propagating along the z-axis at point (x = 0, y = 0), z denotes the distance from the spot to the focal point on the optical axis, ω(z) denotes the spot radius of a Gaussian beam that intersects with the propagation axis at point z, r denotes the curvature radius of the wave front, and E denotes the electric field at coordinate points (x, y, z).

_{1}, y

_{1}, z) and b(x

_{1}+Δ, y

_{1}, z), and Δ tends to 0. Then, these two points can be considered as any two points within an extremely small area. The light intensity ratio of two points can be obtained from Equation (7):

_{a}≈ I

_{b}. Equation (10) shows that the intensity of the laser spot at any point in an extremely small area is approximately equal. In other words, the light is equivalently uniform in a very small area.

## 4. Simulation and Analysis

^{2}. The other illuminance value can be calculated according to the proportions presented in Table 1. The calculation results are listed in Table 2. The illuminance parameter of the unit in the seventh row and second column of the model is 1000 W/m

^{2}. In other words, it is at the center of the laser and has the maximum illumination. With it as the center, the input illuminance of the units on both sides decreases in turn. In order to better compare the simulation results, different illuminance values in Table 2 are input as light intensity parameters to the model of the photoelectric receiver under laser irradiation. It is used to analyze the output power of the photovoltaic panel under different uniform light irradiation.

^{2}and the photovoltaic panel functions as a constant current source.

^{2}. The photovoltaic panel outputs 12 current values, with each value corresponding to a certain voltage range and an equal voltage difference. The current decreases along with the increasing voltage. The maximum and minimum values are the current at irradiance of 1000 and 15 W/m

^{2}, respectively. A spot that contains four values of irradiance (300, 500, 800, and 1000 W/m

^{2}) is presented as the middle curve and acts as a current source with four current values. The maximum and minimum values are the current at 1000 and 300 W/m

^{2}illumination, respectively.

## 5. Experiment and Results Analysis

^{2}, as shown in Figure 8.

^{2}standard light intensity). The 36 photovoltaic cells of the photovoltaic panel are divided into 9 branches. They are connected in parallel to form the total output of the whole photovoltaic panel. Each branch is composed of four photovoltaic cells in series. The circuit diagram is shown in Figure 9. When the above circuit connections are changed, the output voltage and current of the photovoltaic panel will be changed. However, since the comparison experiment only needs to be carried out under the same circuit connection, the relationship between the circuit connection and output will not be discussed in detail.

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 2.**Equivalent circuit of the m series and n parallel connections in the photoelectric panels.

Location (mm) | Power (W) |
---|---|

0 | 0.014 |

1 | 0.136 |

2 | 0.501 |

3 | 1.046 |

4 | 1.512 |

5 | 1.802 |

6 | 1.899 |

7 | 1.854 |

8 | 1.702 |

9 | 1.346 |

10 | 0.733 |

11 | 0.222 |

12 | 0.029 |

Location (mm) | Irradiance (W/m^{2}) |
---|---|

0 | 0 |

1 | 72 |

2 | 264 |

3 | 551 |

4 | 796 |

5 | 949 |

6 | 1000 |

7 | 970 |

8 | 896 |

9 | 709 |

10 | 386 |

11 | 114 |

12 | 15 |

Row | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Column | Voltage (V) | ||||||

1 | 2.75 | 3.67 | 4 | 3.87 | 3.7 | 3.85 | |

2 | 3.07 | 4.03 | 4.19 | 4.16 | 4.08 | 3.92 | |

3 | 3.96 | 4.19 | 4.27 | 4.27 | 4.17 | 4 | |

4 | 3.97 | 4.13 | 3.18 | 4.25 | 4.21 | 4.02 | |

5 | 3.36 | 4.06 | 4.15 | 4.18 | 4.07 | 3.97 | |

6 | 2.5 | 3.47 | 3.6 | 3.83 | 3.63 | 3.62 |

Row | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Column | Current (mA) | ||||||

1 | 0.18 | 3.49 | 5.23 | 5.26 | 4.81 | 2.92 | |

2 | 1.62 | 6.15 | 11.75 | 11.49 | 7.69 | 4.37 | |

3 | 3.8 | 8.02 | 14.03 | 16.25 | 10.37 | 6.25 | |

4 | 4.24 | 9.52 | 18.2 | 14.78 | 10.75 | 4.21 | |

5 | 1.14 | 5.48 | 9.13 | 9.01 | 7.12 | 4.4 | |

6 | 0.14 | 1.1 | 2.28 | 3.28 | 3.41 | 2.2 |

Row | 1 | 2 | 3 | 1 | 2 | 3 | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Column | Voltage (V) | Curren t(mA) | |||||

1 | 14.18 | 16.31 | 15.6 | 0.78 | 5.46 | 3.44 | |

2 | 16.27 | 16.02 | 16.44 | 4.31 | 14.48 | 6.79 | |

3 | 13.51 | 15.82 | 15.37 | 0.48 | 3.1 | 2.99 |

Laser | Voltage of Measured (v) | Current of Measured (mA) | Output Power (mW) (Voltage × Current) | Input Power of the Laser (W) | Loss Rate of Power |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

808 nm (1.2 m) | 15.92 | 41.66 | 663.227 | 5.0 | 86.74% |

808 nm (7.5 m) | 11.52 | 4.30 | 49.536 | 5.0 | 99.01% |

532 nm (7.5 m) | 8.19 | 1.11 | 9.009 | 4.5 | 99.80% |

1030 nm (7.5 m) | 8.38 | 0.72 | 6.034 | 5.0 | 99.88% |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

He, T.; Zheng, G.; Liu, X.; Wu, Q.; Wang, M.; Yang, C.; Lv, Z.
Analysis and Experiment of Laser Wireless Power Transmission Based on Photovoltaic Panel. *Photonics* **2022**, *9*, 684.
https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics9100684

**AMA Style**

He T, Zheng G, Liu X, Wu Q, Wang M, Yang C, Lv Z.
Analysis and Experiment of Laser Wireless Power Transmission Based on Photovoltaic Panel. *Photonics*. 2022; 9(10):684.
https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics9100684

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

He, Tiefeng, Guoliang Zheng, Xing Liu, Qingyang Wu, Meng Wang, Can Yang, and Zhijian Lv.
2022. "Analysis and Experiment of Laser Wireless Power Transmission Based on Photovoltaic Panel" *Photonics* 9, no. 10: 684.
https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics9100684