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Photonics 2019, 6(4), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics6040127
2. Materials and Methods
- The uniform deposition of the 0.6–1.6 mm thick NiBSi-WC layer on the Cu-Cr-Zr substrate can be accomplished using a diode laser possessing the emission energy of 5000 W, the wavelength of 976 nm, when the substrate is pre-heated to 200–250 °C.
- The carbides in the laser-deposited layers are characteristic areas, which are more susceptible to cracking. This susceptibility increases as the layer thickness decreases. Optimization of rate of scanning, the form of the laser beam, and the size of the overlap zone of passes are required to obtain a crack-free layer.
- The size of the Cu–Ni mixing zone during laser processing varies from 20 to 40 µm in thin coatings. In thick coatings, the mixture of Cu with Ni is observed at a width less than 200 µm. This indicates high adhesion strength.
- Precipitation of secondary carbides takes place in the thicker layers. Their hardness is lower than that of primary carbides in the deposition (2425 HV vs. 2757 HV) because they mix with the matrix material. In the thin layers, the precipitation is restricted due to a higher cooling rate.
- The microhardness value of laser-deposited tungsten carbides is 0.9 that of the cast carbides: It is about two times higher than the carbides in HVOF coatings. For both LD coatings, carbide hardness increases compared to the initial WC-containing powder (2756 HV vs. 2200 HV). Such a high level of microhardness reflects the combined influence of low thermal destruction of carbides during laser deposition and the formation of a boride-strengthening phase from the matrix powder.
- Two body dry wear tests showed that weight loss is 20% less for the LD-thick layer. This is due to the higher cooling rate of the LD-thin layer, which leads to a transition from adhesive wear in the thin layers to abrasive wear in the thick layers. This is due to the following reasons:
- The enlargement of the square of the supporting contact patch with reprecipitated carbides;
- The transitional layer on the carbide–matrix interface is intermediate in terms of hardness (1900 HV) and plasticity. In the 1.6 mm layer, its thickness is two to three times higher. On the one hand, this contributes to an increase in the patch square; on the other hand, it keeps the carbide particles from spalling.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Content, wt.%||Characteristic Areas In LD-Thin||Characteristic Areas In LD-Thick|
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