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Low-Temperature Bonding for Silicon-Based Micro-Optical Systems

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Photonics 2015, 2(4), 1164-1201;
Received: 7 November 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 December 2015 / Published: 15 December 2015
PDF [1368 KB, uploaded 15 December 2015]


Silicon-based integrated systems are actively pursued for sensing and imaging applications. A major challenge to realize highly sensitive systems is the integration of electronic, optical, mechanical and fluidic, all on a common platform. Further, the interface quality between the tiny optoelectronic structures and the substrate for alignment and coupling of the signals significantly impacts the system’s performance. These systems also have to be low-cost, densely integrated and compatible with current and future mainstream technologies for electronic-photonic integration. To address these issues, proper selection of the fabrication, integration and assembly technologies is needed. In this paper, wafer level bonding with advanced features such as surface activation and passive alignment for vertical electrical interconnections are identified as candidate technologies to integrate different electronics, optical and photonic components. Surface activated bonding, superior to other assembly methods, enables low-temperature nanoscaled component integration with high alignment accuracy, low electrical loss and high transparency of the interface. These features are preferred for the hybrid integration of silicon-based micro-opto-electronic systems. In future, new materials and assembly technologies may emerge to enhance the performance of these micro systems and reduce their cost. The article is a detailed review of bonding techniques for electronic, optical and photonic components in silicon-based systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: hybrid integration; low-temperature bonding; silicon photonics; optical detection systems; surface activated bonding hybrid integration; low-temperature bonding; silicon photonics; optical detection systems; surface activated bonding

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Qin, Y.; Howlader, M.M.; Deen, M.J. Low-Temperature Bonding for Silicon-Based Micro-Optical Systems. Photonics 2015, 2, 1164-1201.

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