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Review

Evolution of Environmentally Friendly Strategies for Metal Extraction

1
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA
2
School of Green Chemistry and Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA
3
Dr. Nina McClelland Laboratory for Water Chemistry and Environmental Analysis, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Separations 2020, 7(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations7010004
Received: 9 October 2019 / Revised: 2 December 2019 / Accepted: 3 December 2019 / Published: 6 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Alternative Green Sample Preparation Techniques)
The demand for the recovery of valuable metals and the need to understand the impact of heavy metals in the environment on human and aquatic life has led to the development of new methods for the extraction, recovery, and analysis of metal ions. With special emphasis on environmentally friendly approaches, efforts have been made to consider strategies that minimize the use of organic solvents, apply micromethodology, limit waste, reduce costs, are safe, and utilize benign or reusable materials. This review discusses recent developments in liquid- and solid-phase extraction techniques. Liquid-based methods include advances in the application of aqueous two- and three-phase systems, liquid membranes, and cloud point extraction. Recent progress in exploiting new sorbent materials for solid-phase extraction (SPE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and bulk extractions will also be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: metal extraction; liquid–liquid extraction; solid-phase extraction; solid-phase microextraction; green extraction methods metal extraction; liquid–liquid extraction; solid-phase extraction; solid-phase microextraction; green extraction methods
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shyam Sunder, G.S.; Adhikari, S.; Rohanifar, A.; Poudel, A.; Kirchhoff, J.R. Evolution of Environmentally Friendly Strategies for Metal Extraction. Separations 2020, 7, 4. https://doi.org/10.3390/separations7010004

AMA Style

Shyam Sunder GS, Adhikari S, Rohanifar A, Poudel A, Kirchhoff JR. Evolution of Environmentally Friendly Strategies for Metal Extraction. Separations. 2020; 7(1):4. https://doi.org/10.3390/separations7010004

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shyam Sunder, Govind S., Sandhya Adhikari, Ahmad Rohanifar, Abiral Poudel, and Jon R. Kirchhoff. 2020. "Evolution of Environmentally Friendly Strategies for Metal Extraction" Separations 7, no. 1: 4. https://doi.org/10.3390/separations7010004

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