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Optimised Extraction of Trypsin Inhibitors from Defatted Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) Seeds for Production of a Trypsin Inhibitor-Enriched Freeze Dried Powder

1
School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, NSW 2258, Australia
2
Faculty of Bio-Food Technology and Environment, University of Technology (HUTECH), Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
3
Central Coast Primary Industries Centre, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Ourimbah, NSW 2258, Australia
4
School of Science and Health, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Separations 2019, 6(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations6010008
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Alternative Green Sample Preparation Techniques)
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Abstract

The seeds of the Gac fruit, Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng, are rich in trypsin inhibitors (TIs) but their optimal extraction and the effects of freeze drying are not established. This study aims to (1) compare aqueous solvents (DI water, 0.1 M NaCl, 0.02 M NaOH and ACN)/water/FA, 25:24:1) for extracting TIs from defatted Gac seed kernel powder, (2) to optimise the extraction in terms of solvent, time and material to solvent ratio and (3) to produce a TI-enriched freeze-dried powder (FD-TIP) with good characteristics. Based on the specific TI activity (TIA), the optimal extraction was 1 h using a ratio of 2.0 g of defatted powder in 30 mL of 0.05 M NaCl. The optimisation improved the TIA and specific TIA by 8% and 13%, respectively. The FD-TIP had a high specific TIA (1.57 ± 0.17 mg trypsin/mg protein), although it also contained saponins (43.6 ± 2.3 mg AE/g) and phenolics (10.5 ± 0.3 mg GAE/g). The FD-TIP was likely stable during storage due to its very low moisture content (0.43 ± 0.08%) and water activity (0.18 ± 0.07) and its ability to be easily reconstituted in water due to its high solubility index (92.4 ± 1.5%). Therefore, the optimal conditions for the extraction of TIs from defatted Gac seed kernel powder followed by freeze drying gave a high quality powder in terms of its highly specific TIA and physical properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: Gac; seeds; Momordica cochinchinensis; extraction; trypsin inhibitors; optimisation; freeze drying; response surface methodology Gac; seeds; Momordica cochinchinensis; extraction; trypsin inhibitors; optimisation; freeze drying; response surface methodology
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Le, A.V.; Parks, S.E.; Nguyen, M.H.; Roach, P.D. Optimised Extraction of Trypsin Inhibitors from Defatted Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) Seeds for Production of a Trypsin Inhibitor-Enriched Freeze Dried Powder. Separations 2019, 6, 8.

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