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Separations 2018, 5(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations5030045

Sampling Dynamics for Volatile Organic Compounds Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Arrow for Microbiological Samples

1
Laboratory of Forensic and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Forensic Sciences Unit, Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Chaminade University of Honolulu, 3140 Waialae Ave., Honolulu, HI 96816, USA
2
Laboratory of Forensic Taphonomy, Forensic Sciences Unit, Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Chaminade University of Honolulu, 3140 Waialae Avenue, Honolulu, HI 96816, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are monitored in numerous fields using several commercially-available sampling options. Sorbent-based sampling techniques, such as solid-phase microextraction (SPME), provide pre-concentration and focusing of VOCs prior to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis. This study investigated the dynamics of SPME Arrow, which exhibits an increased sorbent phase volume and improved durability compared to traditional SPME fibers. A volatile reference mixture (VRM) and saturated alkanes mix (SAM) were used to investigate optimal parameters for microbiological VOC profiling in combination with GC–MS analysis. Fiber type, extraction time, desorption time, carryover, and reproducibility were characterized, in addition to a comparison with traditional SPME fibers. The developed method was then applied to longitudinal monitoring of Bacillus subtilis cultures, which represents a ubiquitous microbe in medical, forensic, and agricultural applications. The carbon wide range/polydimethylsiloxane (CWR/PDMS) fiber was found to be optimal for the range of expected VOCs in microbiological profiling, and a statistically significant increase in the majority of VOCs monitored was observed. B. subtilis cultures released a total of 25 VOCs of interest, across three different temporal trend categories (produced, consumed, and equilibrated). This work will assist in providing foundational data for the use of SPME Arrow in future microbiological applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbial VOCs; SPME Arrow; gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS); sampling optimization; Bacillus subtilis microbial VOCs; SPME Arrow; gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS); sampling optimization; Bacillus subtilis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Eckert, K.E.; Carter, D.O.; Perrault, K.A. Sampling Dynamics for Volatile Organic Compounds Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Arrow for Microbiological Samples. Separations 2018, 5, 45.

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