The importance of endodontics is presented within our own concept of Dentistry Sustainable Development (DSD) consisting of three inseparable elements; i.e., Advanced Interventionist Dentistry 4.0 (AID 4.0), Global Dental Prevention (GDP), and the Dentistry Safety System (DSS) as a polemic, with the hypothesis of the need to abandon interventionist dentistry in favour of the domination of dental prevention. In view of the numerous systemic complications of caries that affect 3−5 billion people globally, endodontic treatment effectively counteracts them. Regardless of this, the prevention of oral diseases should be developed very widely, and in many countries dental care should reach the poorest sections of society. The materials and methods of clinical management in endodontic procedures are characterized. The progress in the field of filling materials and techniques for the development and obturation of root canals is presented. The endodontics market is forecast to reach USD 2.1 billion in 2026, with a CAGR of 4.1%. The most widely used and recognized material for filling root canals is gutta-percha, recognized as the “gold standard”. An alternative is a synthetic thermoplastic filler material based on polyester materials, known mainly under the trade name Resilon. There are still sceptical opinions about the need to replace gutta-percha with this synthetic material, and many dentists still believe that this material cannot compete with gutta-percha. The results of studies carried out so far do not allow for the formulation of a substantively and ethically unambiguous view that gutta-percha should be replaced with another material. There is still insufficient clinical evidence to formulate firm opinions in this regard. In essence, materials and technologies used in endodontics do not differ from other groups of materials, which justifies using material engineering methodology for their research. Therefore, a detailed methodological approach is presented to objectify the assessment of endodontic treatment. Theoretical analysis was carried out using the methods of procedural benchmarking and comparative analysis with the use of contextual matrices to virtually optimize the selection of materials, techniques for the development and obturation of root canals, and methods for assessing the effectiveness of filling, which methods are usually used, e.g., in management science, and especially in foresight research as part of knowledge management. The results of these analyses are presented in the form of appropriate context matrices. The full usefulness of the research on the effectiveness and tightness of root canal filling using scanning electron microscopy is indicated. The analysis results are a practical application of the so-called “digital twins” approach concerning the virtual comparative analysis of biomaterials used in endodontic treatment.
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