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Article

Lithium-Ion Batteries as Ignition Sources in Waste Treatment Processes—A Semi-Quantitate Risk Analysis and Assessment of Battery-Caused Waste Fires

1
Chair of Waste Processing Technology and Waste Management, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, 8700 Leoben, Styria, Austria
2
Chair of Thermal Processing Technology, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, 8700 Leoben, Styria, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2021, 9(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010049
Received: 30 November 2020 / Revised: 21 December 2020 / Accepted: 24 December 2020 / Published: 29 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technology of Waste Treatment)
Increasing occurrences of waste fires that are caused by improperly discarded lithium-based portable batteries threaten the whole waste management sector in numerous countries. Studies showed that high quantities of these batteries have been found in several municipal solid waste streams in recent years in Austria. This article reveals the main influence factors on the risk of lithium-based batteries in their end-of-life and it focuses on the quantification of damages to portable batteries during waste treatment processes. Hazards are identified and analysed and potential risks in waste management systems are comprehensively assessed. In two scenarios, the results showed that the potential risks are too high to maintain a sustainable form of waste management. According to the assessment, a small fire in a collection vehicle is located in the risk graph’s yellow region (as low as reasonably practicable, ALARP), while a fully developed fire in a treatment plant has to be classified as an unacceptable risk (red region of risk graph). Finally, basic recommendations for action were made. View Full-Text
Keywords: risk modelling; portable batteries; lithium batteries; fire hazards; waste management risk modelling; portable batteries; lithium batteries; fire hazards; waste management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nigl, T.; Baldauf, M.; Hohenberger, M.; Pomberger, R. Lithium-Ion Batteries as Ignition Sources in Waste Treatment Processes—A Semi-Quantitate Risk Analysis and Assessment of Battery-Caused Waste Fires. Processes 2021, 9, 49. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010049

AMA Style

Nigl T, Baldauf M, Hohenberger M, Pomberger R. Lithium-Ion Batteries as Ignition Sources in Waste Treatment Processes—A Semi-Quantitate Risk Analysis and Assessment of Battery-Caused Waste Fires. Processes. 2021; 9(1):49. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010049

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nigl, Thomas, Mirjam Baldauf, Michael Hohenberger, and Roland Pomberger. 2021. "Lithium-Ion Batteries as Ignition Sources in Waste Treatment Processes—A Semi-Quantitate Risk Analysis and Assessment of Battery-Caused Waste Fires" Processes 9, no. 1: 49. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010049

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