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Article

High Yield Super-Hydrophobic Carbon Nanomaterials Using Cobalt/Iron Co-Catalyst Impregnated on Powder Activated Carbon

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Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Centre (NANOCAT), IPS Building, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
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National Chair of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Nizwa, Birkat Almawz 616, Oman
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Al-Maaref University College, Ramadi 31001, Iraq
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Research Centre for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Utilization, School of Science and Technology, Sunway University, Bandar Sunway, Petaling Jaya 47500, Malaysia
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Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW, UK
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Petroleum and Chemical Engineering Department, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, Muscat 123, Oman
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General and Laparoscopic, Department of Surgery, Aleppo University Hospital, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2021, 9(1), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010134
Received: 18 December 2019 / Revised: 10 January 2020 / Accepted: 13 January 2020 / Published: 11 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supported Nanoparticle Catalysts)
Synthesis of super-hydrophobic carbonaceous materials is gaining a broader interest by the research community due to its versatile application in separation processes, special coating technologies, and membrane distillation. Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) may exhibit stable super-hydrophobic character due to their unique physio-chemical features which can be further controlled based on customer requirements by optimizing the process variables. This study deals with the application of a bimetallic catalyst composed of iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co) to synthesize CNMs from powder activated carbon as a precursor. The process parameters were optimized to ensure super-hydrophobic surfaces. Chemical vapor deposition was utilized for the growth of carbon nanomaterials. The impact of input variables on the desired output of yield and contact angle was analyzed. The chemical vapor deposition process was optimized using the response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design. The proportion of the catalysts and reaction time were the three input explanatory variables whereas the desired response variables were selected as the carbon yield (CY) and contact angle (CA). The synthesized super-hydrophobic materials were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and contact angle analysis. The comprehensive statistical study of the results led to a significant model and optimization. The highest CY (351%) and CA (173°) were obtained at the optimal loading of 2.5% Fe and 2% Mo with a reaction time of 60 min. The images obtained from FESEM and TEM revealed the presence of two types of CNMs including carbon nanofibers and multiwall carbon nanotubes. Thermogravimetric analysis was carried out to observe the temperature degradation profile of the synthesized sample. Raman spectroscopic analysis was also used to observe the proportion of ordered and disordered carbon content inside the synthesized samples. The improved catalytic super-hydrophobic carbon nanostructured materials production process proposed by this study assures the stability and high yield of the product. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon nanotubes; chemical vapor deposition; super-hydrophobic; bimetallic catalyst; powder activated carbon carbon nanotubes; chemical vapor deposition; super-hydrophobic; bimetallic catalyst; powder activated carbon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Betar, B.O.; Alsaadi, M.A.; Chowdhury, Z.Z.; Aroua, M.K.; Mjalli, F.S.; Niazi, M.M. High Yield Super-Hydrophobic Carbon Nanomaterials Using Cobalt/Iron Co-Catalyst Impregnated on Powder Activated Carbon. Processes 2021, 9, 134. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010134

AMA Style

Betar BO, Alsaadi MA, Chowdhury ZZ, Aroua MK, Mjalli FS, Niazi MM. High Yield Super-Hydrophobic Carbon Nanomaterials Using Cobalt/Iron Co-Catalyst Impregnated on Powder Activated Carbon. Processes. 2021; 9(1):134. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010134

Chicago/Turabian Style

Betar, Bashir O., Mohammed A. Alsaadi, Zaira Z. Chowdhury, Mohamed K. Aroua, Farouq S. Mjalli, and MD Mourad Niazi. 2021. "High Yield Super-Hydrophobic Carbon Nanomaterials Using Cobalt/Iron Co-Catalyst Impregnated on Powder Activated Carbon" Processes 9, no. 1: 134. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010134

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