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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Volatile Esters and Fusel Alcohol Concentrations in Beer Optimized by Modulation of Main Fermentation Parameters in an Industrial Plant

1
Krakow School of Health Promotion, 31-158 Krakow, Poland
2
Department of Food Biotechnology, Food Technology, University of Agriculture, 30-149 Krakow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(7), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8070769
Received: 9 June 2020 / Revised: 26 June 2020 / Accepted: 28 June 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing Foods: Process Optimization and Quality Assessment)
Contents of selected volatile esters and fusel alcohols and their relation to the sensory quality of a bottom-fermented lager beer fermented under high-gravity conditions (15.5 °P) were analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM, Box–Behnken design). The influence of various pitching rates (6–10 mln cells/mL), aeration levels (8–12 mgO2/mL), times (4.5–13.5 h) of filling CCTs (cylindroconical fermentation tanks; 3850 hL), and fermentation temperatures (8.5–11.5 °C) on the contents of selected esters, as well as on concentrations of amyl alcohols and on the sum of higher alcohols in beer, was determined in a commercial brewery fermentation plant. Beers produced throughout the experiments met or exceeded all criteria established for a commercial, marketed beer. Statistical analyses of the results revealed that within the studied ranges of process parameters, models with diversified significance described the concentrations of volatiles in beer. The multiple response optimization procedure analyses showed that the values of process parameters that minimized higher alcohols in beer (97.9 mg/L) and maximized its ethyl acetate (22.0 mg/L) and isoamyl acetate (2.09 mg/L) contents, as well as maximized the sensory quality of beer, (66.4 pts) were the following: Pitching rate 10 mln cells per mL; fermentation temperature 11.5 °C; aeration level 8.8 mg/L; and CCT filling time 4.5 h. View Full-Text
Keywords: beer brewing; volatile compounds; sensory quality; industrial plant; manufacturing scale; process optimization; response surface methodology beer brewing; volatile compounds; sensory quality; industrial plant; manufacturing scale; process optimization; response surface methodology
MDPI and ACS Style

Kucharczyk, K.; Żyła, K.; Tuszyński, T. Volatile Esters and Fusel Alcohol Concentrations in Beer Optimized by Modulation of Main Fermentation Parameters in an Industrial Plant. Processes 2020, 8, 769.

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