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Open AccessArticle

Heterotrophic Plate Count for Bottled Water Safety Management

Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Lodz University of Technology, Wolczanska 171/173, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(6), 739;
Received: 27 May 2020 / Revised: 14 June 2020 / Accepted: 23 June 2020 / Published: 24 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing Foods: Process Optimization and Quality Assessment)
Heterotrophic bacteria are able to form biofilms in water processing systems, adhering to pipe materials and colonizing surfaces. The aim of our research was to identify the critical points in the process of bottled water production at which controls can be applied to prevent, reduce, or eliminate water safety hazards. Microbiological monitoring was conducted using the plate count method and luminometry. To identify the bacterial isolates, we used polyphasic identification based on biochemical tests and molecular analysis using ribosomal RNA. The heterotrophic plate counts were higher in the water filtration station, ultrafiltration (UV) disinfection station, and holding tank. At these points of the industrial process, the water is stagnant or there is poor flow. Molecular analysis identified the bacterial isolates as belonging to Acinetobacter, Agrobacterium, Aeromonas, Brevundimonas, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Pantoea, and Rhizobium genera. Bacterial isolates showed various levels of biofilm formation, and the best adhesion properties were exhibited by the Aeromonas hydrophila and Citrobacter freundii strains. View Full-Text
Keywords: bottled water; technology; biofilm; heterotrophic plate count; bacteria bottled water; technology; biofilm; heterotrophic plate count; bacteria
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Rygala, A.; Berlowska, J.; Kregiel, D. Heterotrophic Plate Count for Bottled Water Safety Management. Processes 2020, 8, 739.

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