Next Article in Journal
Supplier Selection for the Adoption of Green Innovation in Sustainable Supply Chain Management Practices: A Case of the Chinese Textile Manufacturing Industry
Next Article in Special Issue
Response Surface Optimization of Culture Conditions for Cyclic Lipopeptide MS07 from Bacillus siamensis Reveals Diverse Insights Targeting Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity
Previous Article in Journal
Valorization of Globe Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) Agro-Industrial Discards, Obtaining an Extract with a Selective Effect on Viability of Cancer Cell Lines
Open AccessArticle

Process Optimization of Palm Oil Mill Effluent-Based Biosurfactant of Halomonas meridiana BK-AB4 Originated from Bledug Kuwu Mud Volcano in Central Java for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

1
Bioprocess Engineering Program, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
2
Department of Chemistry, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(6), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060716
Received: 5 June 2020 / Revised: 18 June 2020 / Accepted: 18 June 2020 / Published: 20 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioprocess Design and Optimization)
Biosurfactants are one of the microbial bioproducts that are in most demand from microbial-enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The production of biosurfactant is still a relatively high cost. Therefore, this study aims to reduce production costs by utilizing palm oil mill effluent (POME) as the main carbon source. This work examines the optimal conditions of biosurfactant production by Halomonas meridiana BK-AB4 isolated from the Bledug Kuwu mud volcano in Central Java Indonesia and studies it for EOR applications. The biosurfactant production stage was optimized by varying POME concentration, incubation time, NaCl concentration, and pH to obtain the maximum oil displacement area (ODA) values. A response surface methodology (RSM) and a central composite design (CCD) were used to identify the influence of each variable and to trace the relationship between variables. Optimum biosurfactant production was found at a POME concentration (v/v) of 16%, incubation (h) of 112, NaCl concentration (w/v) of 4.7%, pH of 6.5, with an oil displacement area of 3.642 cm. The LC-MS and FTIR analysis revealed the functional groups of carboxylic acid or esters, which indicated that the biosurfactant produced belonged to the fatty acid class. The lowest IFT value was obtained at the second and seventh-day observations at a concentration of 500 mg/L, i.e., 0.03 mN/m and 0.06 mN/m. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of biosurfactant was about 350 mg/L with a surface tension value of about 54.16 mN/m. The highest emulsification activity (E24 = 76%) in light crude oil (naphthenic–naphthenic) and could reduce the interfacial tension between oil and water up to 0.18 mN/m. The imbibition experiment with biosurfactant results in 23.89% additional oil recovery for 60 h of observation, with the highest increase in oil recovery occurring at the 18th hour, which is 2.72%. Therefore, this bacterium and its biosurfactant show potential, and the bacterium are suitable for use in MEOR applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosurfactant; Halomonas meridiana BK-AB4; palm oil mill effluent; response surface methodology biosurfactant; Halomonas meridiana BK-AB4; palm oil mill effluent; response surface methodology
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Sari, C.N.; Hertadi, R.; Harahap, A.F.P.; Ramadhan, M.Y.A.; Gozan, M. Process Optimization of Palm Oil Mill Effluent-Based Biosurfactant of Halomonas meridiana BK-AB4 Originated from Bledug Kuwu Mud Volcano in Central Java for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery. Processes 2020, 8, 716.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop