# Computational Approaches for Studying Slag–Matte Interactions in the Flash Smelting Furnace (FSF) Settler

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

_{2}gas is also formed. The gas exits through the uptake shaft carrying dust that is collected in gas cleaning, and the gas is then used in sulfuric acid production. In addition, the thermal energy of the gas is recovered and used for heating input gases and possibly for the local community. The collected dust is then circulated back to the process [4].

^{®}Fluent 19.2 and EDEM

^{®}2019.1 with EDEM-Fluent coupling v2.2 provided by DEM Solutions Ltd., Edinburgh, Scotland, UK [24].

## 2. Methods

#### 2.1. Population Balance Model

#### 2.2. Coalescence Model

#### 2.3. Coupled CFD–DEM

#### 2.4. Geometry Dimensions and Materials

## 3. Results

#### 3.1. CFD Simulation

#### 3.2. Coupled CFD–DEM Simulation

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**Illustration of the computational fluid dynamics–discrete element method (CFD–DEM) calculation process.

**Figure 3.**Geometry and mesh of the CFD model for CFD–DEM simulation. Inlet (blue) on the top and tapping hole (red) on the right side.

**Figure 8.**Droplet sizes in the slag layer at 60 s. The 50 mm settling distance is marked with a line.

**Figure 10.**A comparison of the CFD and CFD–DEM results for matte settling in the small-scale settler model, revealing a similar funneling flow pattern at 15, 17, 18, and 20 s. Upper row: CFD, lower row: CFD–DEM.

Parameter | Slag | Matte |
---|---|---|

Feed rate (kg/s) | 0.022 | 0.0086 |

ρ (kg/m^{3}) | 3150 | 5100 |

Viscosity (kg/ms) | 0.45 | - |

Mean diameter (µm) | - | 500 |

Standard deviation | - | 0.1 |

Matte Droplets Size (μm) | Mass % | Volume Fraction in Mixture |
---|---|---|

500 | 2 | 0.006 |

300 | 67 | 0.201 |

150 | 18 | 0.054 |

100 | 4 | 0.012 |

75 | 1 | 0.003 |

60 | 2 | 0.006 |

50 | 6 | 0.018 |

**Table 3.**Results for Luo [27] coalescence model.

Droplet Size (µm) | Volume Fraction |
---|---|

1300 | |

900 | |

500 |

| | |

Time (Sec.) | |

70 | |

75 | |

80 |

Time (sec.) | |

70 | |

75 | |

80 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Jylhä, J.-P.; Khan, N.A.; Jokilaakso, A.
Computational Approaches for Studying Slag–Matte Interactions in the Flash Smelting Furnace (FSF) Settler. *Processes* **2020**, *8*, 485.
https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8040485

**AMA Style**

Jylhä J-P, Khan NA, Jokilaakso A.
Computational Approaches for Studying Slag–Matte Interactions in the Flash Smelting Furnace (FSF) Settler. *Processes*. 2020; 8(4):485.
https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8040485

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Jylhä, Jani-Petteri, Nadir Ali Khan, and Ari Jokilaakso.
2020. "Computational Approaches for Studying Slag–Matte Interactions in the Flash Smelting Furnace (FSF) Settler" *Processes* 8, no. 4: 485.
https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8040485