Solid waste generation has been projected to increase worldwide. Presently, the most applied methodology to dispose of solid waste is landfilling. However, these landfill sites, over time release a significant quantity of leachate, which can pose serious environmental issues, including contamination of water resources. There exist many physicochemical and biological landfill leachate treatment schemes with varying degrees of success. With an increasing focus on sustainability, there has been a demand for developing eco-friendly, green treatment schemes for landfill leachates with viable resource recovery and minimum environmental footprints. Microalgae-based techniques can be a potential candidate for such a treatment scenario. In this article, research on microalgae-based landfill leachate treatments reported in the last 15 years have been summarized and critically reviewed. The scale-up aspect of microalgae technology has been discussed, and the related critical factors have been elucidated. The article also analyzes the resource recovery potential for microalgal techniques with respect to leachate treatment and explores possible methodologies to minimize the environmental footprints of the microalgae-based treatment process. The future research potential in the area has been identified and discussed.
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