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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Phenomenological Analysis of Thermo-Mechanical-Chemical Properties of GFRP during Curing by Means of Sensor Supported Process Simulation

by Robert Hein *,†, Robert Prussak and Jochen Schmidt
German Aerospace Center (DLR), Lilienthalplatz 7, 38108 Braunschweig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Processes 2020, 8(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020192 (registering DOI)
Received: 31 December 2019 / Revised: 25 January 2020 / Accepted: 30 January 2020 / Published: 5 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synergies in Combined Development of Processes and Models)
Inherent process-induced deformations (PID) and residual stresses impede the application of composite parts. PID lead to a geometrical mismatch in assemblies and require subsequent work for tolerance compensation. Unknown residual stresses cause overweighted structures resulting from unnecessary high safety factors. To counteract the deformations, the tool design needs to be modified until the component geometry meets the specifications. This process is mostly carried out empirically and is time and cost intensive. To improve the efficiency of the development process, an in-deep comprehension of the manufacturing processes is mandatory. Therefore, experimental and simulation-based methods are increasingly applied and enhanced. The object of this work is to investigate the development of process-induced strains as well as the material behaviour during the manufacturing for a GFRP plate. The process-induced strains are monitored by optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. The change of the material phases is detected by dielectric sensors. Furthermore, a detailed process simulation considering viscoelastic effects and reaction kinetics is performed. Finally, the measurements are correlated with the simulation data to validate the simulation approach. A very good correlation for both the reaction kinetics as well as the process-induced strains is observed.
Keywords: process-induced strains; residual stresses; process-induced distortions; fiber bragg grating; dielectric sensors; reaction kinetic; process simulation; viscoelasticity process-induced strains; residual stresses; process-induced distortions; fiber bragg grating; dielectric sensors; reaction kinetic; process simulation; viscoelasticity
MDPI and ACS Style

Hein, R.; Prussak, R.; Schmidt, J. Phenomenological Analysis of Thermo-Mechanical-Chemical Properties of GFRP during Curing by Means of Sensor Supported Process Simulation. Processes 2020, 8, 192.

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