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Open AccessArticle

Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Extraction Process of Callicarpa candicans (Burm. f.) Hochr Essential Oil and Its Inhibitory Properties against Some Bacteria and Cancer Cell Lines

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Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Graduate University of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet St., Cau Giay Dist., Hanoi 10072, Vietnam
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Institute of Natural Products Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet St., Cau Giay Dist., Hanoi 10072, Vietnam
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Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry, Thai Nguyen 23000, Vietnam
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National Key Laboratory Petrochemical and Refinery Technologies, Vietnam Institute of Industrial Chemistry, Phuc Dien, Bac Tu Liem, Hanoi 10072, Vietnam
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Faculty of Biotechnology, Hanoi Open University, B101 Nguyen Hien, Hai Ba Trung, Hanoi 10072, Vietnam
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Hanoi University of Natural Resources and Environment, Hanoi 10072, Vietnam
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Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Korea
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NTT Hi-tech Institute, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, 300A Nguyen Tat Thanh, Ward 13, District 4, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(2), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020173
Received: 23 December 2019 / Revised: 22 January 2020 / Accepted: 29 January 2020 / Published: 4 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Conversion Techniques Intensification)
Callicarpa candicans (Burm. f.) Hochr. (Callicarpa cana L.) is a medicinal plant that is distributed mainly in the tropics and subtropics of Asia and finds a wide range of uses in traditional medicine. In this study, we attempted and optimized the microwave-assisted hydro-distillation (MAHD) process to obtain essential oil from the leaves of C. candicans. In addition, the obtained oil was analyzed for volatile composition by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and assayed for bioactivity against several bacteria and cancer cell lines. To optimize the extraction process, response surface methodology (RSM) in combination with central composite design (CCD) was adopted. Experimental design and optimization were carried out with respect to three experimental factors including the ratio of water to raw material, extraction time, and microwave power. The optimal extraction conditions were obtained as follows: water to raw material ratio of 6/1 (v/w), extraction time 42 min, and microwave power 440 W. Composition determination of the obtained C. candicans essential oil indicated the presence of predominant components including caryophyllene <b-> (10.45%), cadinene <d-> (10.28%), gurjunene <a-> (8.95%), muurolene <g-> (8.92%), selinene <a-> (7.06%), selinene <b-> (5.59%), and copaene <a-> (5.40%). In comparison with the essential oils obtained via traditional hydro-distillation method, the essential oil extracted by MAHD exhibited superior anti-proliferative activity on all tested cancer cell lines. Current results imply that the MAHD is capable of recovering biologically-active natural products of greater quantity than that recovered by the conventional distillation.
Keywords: Callicarpa candicans; microwave-assisted extraction; the MAHD; essential oil; anti-proliferative activity; antimicrobial activities; optimization; response surface methodology Callicarpa candicans; microwave-assisted extraction; the MAHD; essential oil; anti-proliferative activity; antimicrobial activities; optimization; response surface methodology
MDPI and ACS Style

Tran, Q.T.; Vu Thi, T.L.; Do, T.L.; Pham Thi, H.M.; Hoang Thi, B.; Chu, Q.T.; Lai Phuong, P.T.; Do, H.N.; Hoang Than, H.T.; Ta Thi, T.T.; Luu, V.H.; Mai Duong, P.T.; Thu Phung, H.T. Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Extraction Process of Callicarpa candicans (Burm. f.) Hochr Essential Oil and Its Inhibitory Properties against Some Bacteria and Cancer Cell Lines. Processes 2020, 8, 173.

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