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Review

Processing Methods Used in the Fabrication of Macrostructures Containing 1D Carbon Nanomaterials for Catalysis

Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering—Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials (LSRE-LCM), Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
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Processes 2020, 8(11), 1329; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8111329
Received: 1 September 2020 / Revised: 6 October 2020 / Accepted: 15 October 2020 / Published: 22 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanofibers: Preparation and Catalytic Performance)
A large number of methodologies for fabrication of 1D carbon nanomaterials have been developed in the past few years and are extensively described in the literature. However, for many applications, and in particular in catalysis, a translation of the materials to a macro-structured form is often required towards their use in practical operation conditions. This review intends to describe the available methods currently used for fabrication of such macro-structures, either already applied or with potential for application in the fabrication of macro-structured catalysts containing 1D carbon nanomaterials. A review of the processing methods used in the fabrication of macrostructures containing 1D sp2 hybridized carbon nanomaterials is presented. The carbon nanomaterials here discussed include single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and several types of carbon nanofibers (fishbone, platelet, stacked cup, etc.). As the processing methods used in the fabrication of the macrostructures are generally very similar for any of the carbon nanotubes or nanofibers due to their similar chemical nature (constituted by stacked ordered graphene planes), the review aggregates all under the carbon nanofiber (CNF) moniker. The review is divided into methods where the CNFs are synthesized already in the form of a macrostructure (in situ methods) or where the CNFs are previously synthesized and then further processed into the desired macrostructures (ex situ methods). We highlight in particular the advantages of each approach, including a (non-exhaustive) description of methods commonly described for in situ and ex situ preparation of the catalytic macro-structures. The review proposes methods useful in the preparation of catalytic structures, and thus a number of techniques are left out which are used in the fabrication of CNF-containing structures with no exposure of the carbon materials to reactants due to, for example, complete coverage of the CNF. During the description of the methodologies, several different macrostructures are described. A brief overview of the potential applications of such structures in catalysis is also offered herein, together with a short description of the catalytic potential of CNFs in general. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon nanofibers; nanostructured carbon; 1D carbon nanomaterials; catalysis; nanocatalysts; structured catalysts; catalyst preparation carbon nanofibers; nanostructured carbon; 1D carbon nanomaterials; catalysis; nanocatalysts; structured catalysts; catalyst preparation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Restivo, J.; Gonçalves Pinto Soares, O.S.; Ribeiro Pereira, M.F. Processing Methods Used in the Fabrication of Macrostructures Containing 1D Carbon Nanomaterials for Catalysis. Processes 2020, 8, 1329. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8111329

AMA Style

Restivo J, Gonçalves Pinto Soares OS, Ribeiro Pereira MF. Processing Methods Used in the Fabrication of Macrostructures Containing 1D Carbon Nanomaterials for Catalysis. Processes. 2020; 8(11):1329. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8111329

Chicago/Turabian Style

Restivo, João, Olívia S. Gonçalves Pinto Soares, and Manuel F. Ribeiro Pereira 2020. "Processing Methods Used in the Fabrication of Macrostructures Containing 1D Carbon Nanomaterials for Catalysis" Processes 8, no. 11: 1329. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8111329

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