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High Pressure Injection of Chemicals in a Gravel Beach

1
Center for Natural Resources, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Newark College of Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
2
Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, QC H4B 1R6, Canada
3
Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS B2Y 4A2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2019, 7(8), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7080525
Received: 19 June 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 August 2019 / Published: 8 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Modelling)
PDF [1735 KB, uploaded 20 August 2019]

Abstract

The remediation of beaches contaminated with oil includes the application of surfactants and/or the application of amendments to enhance oil biodegradation (i.e., bioremediation). This study focused on evaluating the practicability of the high pressure injection (HPI) of dissolved chemicals into the subsurface of a lentic Alaskan beach subjected to a 5 m tidal range. A conservative tracer, lithium, in a lithium bromide (LiBr) solution, was injected into the beach at 1.0 m depth near the mid-tide line. The flow rate was varied between 1.0 and 1.5 L/min, and the resulting injection pressure varied between 3 m and 6 m of water. The concentration of the injected tracer was measured from four surrounding monitoring wells at multiple depths. The HPI associated with a flow rate of 1.5 L/min resulted in a Darcy flux in the cross-shore direction at 1.15 × 10−5 m/s compared to that of 7.5 × 10−6 m/s under normal conditions. The HPI, thus, enhanced the hydraulic conveyance of the beach. The results revealed that the tracer plume dispersed an area of ~12 m2 within 24 h. These results suggest that deep injection of solutions into a gravel beach is a viable approach for remediating beaches.
Keywords: high pressure injection; Exxon Valdez oil spill; tidal beach; tracer study; bioremediation high pressure injection; Exxon Valdez oil spill; tidal beach; tracer study; bioremediation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Geng, X.; Abdollahi-Nasab, A.; An, C.; Chen, Z.; Lee, K.; Boufadel, M.C. High Pressure Injection of Chemicals in a Gravel Beach. Processes 2019, 7, 525.

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