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Open AccessArticle

Optimization of Total Anthocyanin Content, Stability and Antioxidant Evaluation of the Anthocyanin Extract from Vietnamese Carissa Carandas L. Fruits

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Department of Chemical Engineering, HCMC University of Technology, VNU-HCM, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
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Tan Ke High School, Ben Tre Province 930000, Vietnam
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NTT Hi-Tech Institute, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City 755414, Vietnam
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Center of Excellence for Biochemistry and Natural Products, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City 755414, Vietnam
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Institute of Natural Products Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Ha Noi 100803, Vietnam
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Graduate University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Ha Noi 100803, Vietnam
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Nghe An Oncology Hospital, Vinh City 43100, Vietnam
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2019, 7(7), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7070468
Received: 19 June 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Separation and Extraction Processes)
In this study, the extraction of anthocyanin colorant from karanda fruit (Carissa carandas L.) was carried out and optimized with multiple single factor assays. Selected conditions for yield maximization consisted of ripen fruits with black-purple color, material size of thin slices (1.0–1.5 mm), solvent of EtOH 50%, material/ solvent ratio of 1:3, temperature of 50 °C, extraction time of 45 min, and two extraction cycles. The anthocyanin content in the extract was 277.2 mg/L, which is equivalent to 9.33 mg anthocyanin per gram of dry material. Aqueous solutions of the extract and dried extracts from Carissa carandas fruit were evaluated for stability at two temperature conditions, namely room temperature (30 ± 2 °C) and 45 °C. The temperature exerted great impact on color change, anthocyanin content and the degree of polymerization of anthocyanin. Aqueous solutions of extract with citric acid (3.0–5.0 g/L) were generally more color stable and less anthocyanin degradable than those without citric acid. In the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging assay, The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the dried extract was 87.56 μg/mL, which was approximately 29 times higher than that of vitamin C. After 3-month storage at −18 °C, IC50 of the dried extract was 173.67 μg/mL. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthocyanin; Carissa carandas L.; extract conditions; stability; antioxidant properties anthocyanin; Carissa carandas L.; extract conditions; stability; antioxidant properties
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Le, X.T.; Huynh, M.T.; Pham, T.N.; Than, V.T.; Toan, T.Q.; Bach, L.G.; Trung, N.Q. Optimization of Total Anthocyanin Content, Stability and Antioxidant Evaluation of the Anthocyanin Extract from Vietnamese Carissa Carandas L. Fruits. Processes 2019, 7, 468.

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