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Open AccessArticle

Separation of Protein-Binding Anthraquinones from Semen Cassiae Using Two-Stage Foam Fractionation

School of Chemical Engineering and Materials, Changzhou Institute of Technology, No. 666 Liaohe Road, Changzhou 213032, China
Lianyungang TCM Branch of Jiangsu Union Technical Institute, Lianyungang 222006, China
School of Biological Science, Jining Medical University, No. 669 Xueyuan Road, Donggang District, Rizhao 276800, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2019, 7(7), 463;
Received: 24 June 2019 / Revised: 14 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Separation and Extraction Processes)
Anthraquinones are compounds of high medicinal value in many plants. Based on their good protein binding affinity, foam fractionation was attempted to separate them using proteins in the aqueous extract of Semen Cassiae as collectors. Firstly, the interaction between anthraquinones and Semen Cassiae proteins has been analyzed by the Stem–Volmer equation with physcion as a standard. The results show that physcion had good interaction with the proteins via hydrophobic forces. More importantly, the proteins effectively assisted the foam fractionation of several anthraquinones including aurantio-obtusifolin, aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion. On this basis, a two-stage foam fractionation technology was developed for process intensification using a foam fractionation with vertical sieve trays (VSTs). VSTs, initial feed concentration of total anthraquinones, temperature, volumetric air flow rate and pore diameter of gas distributor had significant effects on enrichment ratio and recovery yield of anthraquinones. Under suitable conditions, the enrichment ratio of total anthraquinones reached 47.0 ± 4.5 with a concentration of 939 ± 94 mg/L in the foamate while their total recovery percentage reached more than 47.7%. In addition, foam fractionation also increased the purity and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of total anthraquinones. The results had significant implications for the separation of anthraquinones from Semen Cassiae. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthraquinones; proteins; interaction; Semen Cassiae; foam fractionation anthraquinones; proteins; interaction; Semen Cassiae; foam fractionation
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Ding, L.; Wang, Y.; Yue, C.; Wu, Z.; Sun, Y.; Wang, M.; Li, R. Separation of Protein-Binding Anthraquinones from Semen Cassiae Using Two-Stage Foam Fractionation. Processes 2019, 7, 463.

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