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Article

Characterization of the Primary Sludge from Pharmaceutical Industry Effluents and Final Disposition

1
Department of Biology, State University of Montes Claros, Montes Claros, MG 39401-089, Brazil
2
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Montes Claros, MG 39404-547, Brazil
3
Department of Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology, Federal University of Tocantins, Gurupi, TO 77402-970, Brazil
4
Federal Institute of Education and Technology of the North of Minas Gerais, Araçuai, MG 39600-000, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2019, 7(4), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7040231
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 February 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Sustainable Chemical Processes)
The generation of large volumes of waste by industrial processes has become an object of study because of the necessity to characterize the composition of residues in order to suggest appropriate treatments and to minimize adverse environmental impacts. We performed analyses of total fixed and volatile solids, moisture, and chemical oxygen demand (COD). We found high organic matter content. We also measured physicochemical characteristics, including corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity. Sewage sludge showed levels of chloride and sodium above the maximum allowed limits. These data suggest the potential for anaerobic digestion as a treatment option for sewage sludge and for its use as a biofertilizer. View Full-Text
Keywords: sewage sludge; characterization; toxicity; biofuel; biofertilizer sewage sludge; characterization; toxicity; biofuel; biofertilizer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xavier Alberico Freitas, R.; Aguiar Borges, L.; Fernandes de Souza, H.; Colen, F.; Rodrigues Cangussu, A.S.; Macedo Sobrinho, E.; Souza Alves Fonseca, F.; Henrique Sousa Santos, S.; Aparecida de Carvalho, B.M.; Viana Brandi, I. Characterization of the Primary Sludge from Pharmaceutical Industry Effluents and Final Disposition. Processes 2019, 7, 231. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7040231

AMA Style

Xavier Alberico Freitas R, Aguiar Borges L, Fernandes de Souza H, Colen F, Rodrigues Cangussu AS, Macedo Sobrinho E, Souza Alves Fonseca F, Henrique Sousa Santos S, Aparecida de Carvalho BM, Viana Brandi I. Characterization of the Primary Sludge from Pharmaceutical Industry Effluents and Final Disposition. Processes. 2019; 7(4):231. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7040231

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xavier Alberico Freitas, Renata, Lara Aguiar Borges, Handray Fernandes de Souza, Fernando Colen, Alex S. Rodrigues Cangussu, Eliane Macedo Sobrinho, Francine Souza Alves Fonseca, Sérgio Henrique Sousa Santos, Bruna M. Aparecida de Carvalho, and Igor Viana Brandi. 2019. "Characterization of the Primary Sludge from Pharmaceutical Industry Effluents and Final Disposition" Processes 7, no. 4: 231. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7040231

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