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Processes 2019, 7(4), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7040210

Drying of Phyla nodiflora Leaves: Antioxidant Activity, Volatile and Phytosterol Content, Energy Consumption, and Quality Studies

1
School of Engineering, Taylor’s University, Lakeside Campus, No 1, Jalan Taylor’s, Subang Jaya, Selangor 47500, Malaysia
2
Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 37a Chełmońskiego Street, 51-630 Wrocław, Poland
3
School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University Malaysia, No 1 Jalan Venna P5/2 Precinct 5, Putrajaya 62200, Malaysia
4
Department of Fruit, Vegetable and Plant Nutraceuticals Technology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 371 Chełmońskiego Street, 51-630 Wrocław, Poland
5
Department of Chemistry, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Norwida 25, 53-375 Wrocław, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Green Processes)
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Abstract

Drying is an important process in the preservation of antioxidants in medicinal plants. In this study, leaves of Phyla nodiflora, or commonly known as frog fruit, were dried using convective drying (CD) at 40, 50, and 60 °C; vacuum-microwave drying (VMD) at 6, 9, and 12 W/g; and convective pre-drying followed by vacuum-microwave finish drying (CPD–VMFD) at 50 °C and 9 W/g. Drying kinetics of P. nodiflora leaves was modelled, and the influences of drying methods on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, volatile and phytosterol contents, energy consumption, water activity, and color properties were determined. Results showed that drying kinetics was best described by modified Page model. VMD achieved highest drying rate, whereas VMFD considerably reduced the drying time of CD from 240 min to 105 min. CPD–VMFD was the best option to dry P. nodiflora in terms of retaining volatiles and phytosterols, with lower energy consumption than CD. Meanwhile, VMD at 6 W/g produced samples with the highest antioxidant activity with 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value of 11.00 and 15.99 µM Trolox/100 g dw, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: Phyla nodiflora; vacuum-microwaves; antioxidant activity; essential oil volatile composition; phytosterol; drying technology Phyla nodiflora; vacuum-microwaves; antioxidant activity; essential oil volatile composition; phytosterol; drying technology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Chua, L.Y.W.; Chua, B.L.; Figiel, A.; Chong, C.H.; Wojdyło, A.; Szumny, A.; Łycko, J. Drying of Phyla nodiflora Leaves: Antioxidant Activity, Volatile and Phytosterol Content, Energy Consumption, and Quality Studies. Processes 2019, 7, 210.

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