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Processes 2019, 7(2), 115;

Carbon Mineralization by Reaction with Steel-Making Waste: A Review

Gas Processing Centre, College of Engineering, Qatar University, 2713 Doha, Qatar
Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Qatar University, 2713 Doha, Qatar
William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 February 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 24 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Capture Processes)
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Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is taking the lead as a means for mitigating climate change. It is considered a crucial bridging technology, enabling carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels to be reduced while the energy transition to renewable sources is taking place. CCS includes a portfolio of technologies that can possibly capture vast amounts of CO2 per year. Mineral carbonation is evolving as a possible candidate to sequester CO2 from medium-sized emissions point sources. It is the only recognized form of permanent CO2 storage with no concerns regarding CO2 leakage. It is based on the principles of natural rock weathering, where the CO2 dissolved in rainwater reacts with alkaline rocks to form carbonate minerals. The active alkaline elements (Ca/Mg) are the fundamental reactants for mineral carbonation reaction. Although the reaction is thermodynamically favored, it takes place over a large time scale. The challenge of mineral carbonation is to offset this limitation by accelerating the carbonation reaction with minimal energy and feedstock consumption. Calcium and magnesium silicates are generally selected for carbonation due to their abundance in nature. Industrial waste residues emerge as an alternative source of carbonation minerals that have higher reactivity than natural minerals; they are also inexpensive and readily available in proximity to CO2 emitters. In addition, the environmental stability of the industrial waste is often enhanced as they undergo carbonation. Recently, direct mineral carbonation has been investigated significantly due to its applicability to CO2 capture and storage. This review outlines the main research work carried out over the last few years on direct mineral carbonation process utilizing steel-making waste, with emphasis on recent research achievements and potentials for future research. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon capture; CO2 sequestration; steel-making waste; steel slag carbon capture; CO2 sequestration; steel-making waste; steel slag

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ibrahim, M.H.; El-Naas, M.H.; Benamor, A.; Al-Sobhi, S.S.; Zhang, Z. Carbon Mineralization by Reaction with Steel-Making Waste: A Review. Processes 2019, 7, 115.

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