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Article

Effects of Processing Conditions on the Simultaneous Extraction and Distribution of Oil and Protein from Almond Flour

1
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
2
Department of Agro-industrial Management and Technology, Federal University of Paraíba, PB 58000-000 Bananeiras, Brazil
3
Protimiza Experimental Design, 13000-000 Campinas, Brazil
4
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2019, 7(11), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110844
Received: 23 September 2019 / Revised: 24 October 2019 / Accepted: 4 November 2019 / Published: 11 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Separation and Extraction Processes)
The enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP) is an environmentally friendly strategy that simultaneously extracts oil and protein from several food matrices. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pH (6.5–9.5), temperature (45–55 °C), solids-to-liquid ratio (SLR) (1:12–1:8), and amount of enzyme (0.5–1.0%) on the extraction and separation of oil and protein from almond flour using a fractional factorial design. Oil and protein extraction yields from 61 to 75% and 64 to 79% were achieved, respectively. Experimental conditions resulting in higher extractability were subsequently replicated for validation of the observed effects. Oil and protein extraction yields of 75 and 72% were achieved under optimized extraction conditions (pH 9.0, 50 °C, 1:10 SLR, 0.5% (w/w) of enzyme, 60 min). Although the use of enzyme during the extraction did not lead to significant increase in extraction yields, it did impact the extracted protein functionality. The use of enzyme and alkaline pH (9.0) during the extraction resulted in the production of more soluble peptides at low pH (5.0), highlighting possible uses of the EAEP skim protein in food applications involving acidic pH. The implications of the use of enzyme during the extraction regarding the de-emulsification of the EAEP cream warrant further investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction process; oil extraction; protein extraction; almond flour; solubility enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction process; oil extraction; protein extraction; almond flour; solubility
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MDPI and ACS Style

de Almeida, N.M.; F. G. Dias, F.; Rodrigues, M.I.; L. N. de Moura Bell, J.M. Effects of Processing Conditions on the Simultaneous Extraction and Distribution of Oil and Protein from Almond Flour. Processes 2019, 7, 844. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110844

AMA Style

de Almeida NM, F. G. Dias F, Rodrigues MI, L. N. de Moura Bell JM. Effects of Processing Conditions on the Simultaneous Extraction and Distribution of Oil and Protein from Almond Flour. Processes. 2019; 7(11):844. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110844

Chicago/Turabian Style

de Almeida, Neiva M., Fernanda F. G. Dias, Maria I. Rodrigues, and Juliana M. L. N. de Moura Bell. 2019. "Effects of Processing Conditions on the Simultaneous Extraction and Distribution of Oil and Protein from Almond Flour" Processes 7, no. 11: 844. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110844

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