Reliability Evaluation Method Considering Demand Response (DR) of Household Electrical Equipment in Distribution Networks
- The load characteristic of two typical items of household electrical equipment is elaborately analyzed.
- An electricity price-based DR model and an incentive-based DR model are proposed for two typical items of high-power electrical equipment, considering charging behavior and thermodynamic property.
- A load shedding strategy is introduced to improve the traditional reliability evaluation method for distribution networks, while taking into account the capacity constraints.
- A reliability calculation method of distribution networks with shortage of power supply capacity and faults taken into consideration is presented.
2. DR Modeling
2.1. DR Modeling of EVs Based on Electricity Price
2.1.1. Optimization Objective
2.2. DR Modeling of Air Conditioners Based on Incentive
2.2.1. Optimization Objective
2.2.3. Control Method
3. Reliability Evaluation of Distribution Networks Considering DR
3.1. Model of Load Transfer Capacity
3.2. Load Shedding Strategy
4. Analysis of the Influence of DR on Distribution Network Reliability
4.1. Load Point Reliability Index
4.2. System Reliability Index
5. Improved Reliability Evaluation Method Based on Load Clustering
5.1. Improved Reliability Evaluation Method
- When power supply capacity is insufficient in normal operation state, the load shedding strategy in Section 3.2 should be applied to supply power as much as possible with the feeder maximum capacity constraint respected. Calculate the system reliability indexes with and without DR, respectively.
- When a failure occurs in the distribution network, parts of the loads of Type B cannot get power supply due to restricted transfer capacity if the maximum capacity limit of feeders are considered.
5.2. Reliability Calculation Method of Distribution Networks Considering Load Clustering
6. Case Study
6.1. Case 1
6.1.1. Residential Electricity Load Analysis
6.1.2. Analysis on DR of Residential Load
6.2. Case 2
6.2.1. Simulation Settings
6.2.2. Load Profile Considering DR
6.2.3. Influence of Real-Time Electricity Price on DR
6.2.4. Reliability Evaluation Considering DR
- Case 1: DR is not taken into consideration.
- Case 2: DR based on electricity price and incentive is considered.
- Case 3: Case 1 with sufficient spare capacity of tie lines.
- Case 4: Case 2 with sufficient spare capacity of tie lines.
- The reliability index of the four cases is shown in Table 2.
- DR can improve the load curve and reduce the peak loads. DR based on electricity price has a certain randomness and is greatly affected by real-time electricity price. Unreasonable real-time electricity price may lead to “peak-on-peak” or unnecessary load reduction.
- Both DR based on electricity price and DR based on incentive can improve the reliability index of distribution networks. Compared with the reliability results attained by employing a single DR strategy, comprehensive DRs can improve reliability
- DR has no influence on the distribution network reliability index if transmission capacity of tie lines is assumed to be infinite. Under the premise of considering the tie line capacity limit, DR reduces the peak loads of the systems and decreases the probability of insufficient power supply capacity in normal operation, and meanwhile increases the possibility of the load point being transferred when a failure occurs.
Conflicts of Interest
|Load Number (Class)||Average Load (kW)||Load Number (Class)||Average Load (kW)||Load Number (Class)||Average Load (kW)||Load Number (Class)||Average Load (kW)|
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|Type||Daily Load Rate||Percent|
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Chen, H.; Tang, J.; Sun, L.; Zhou, J.; Wang, X.; Mao, Y. Reliability Evaluation Method Considering Demand Response (DR) of Household Electrical Equipment in Distribution Networks. Processes 2019, 7, 799. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110799
Chen H, Tang J, Sun L, Zhou J, Wang X, Mao Y. Reliability Evaluation Method Considering Demand Response (DR) of Household Electrical Equipment in Distribution Networks. Processes. 2019; 7(11):799. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110799Chicago/Turabian Style
Chen, Hongzhong, Jun Tang, Lei Sun, Jiawei Zhou, Xiaolei Wang, and Yeying Mao. 2019. "Reliability Evaluation Method Considering Demand Response (DR) of Household Electrical Equipment in Distribution Networks" Processes 7, no. 11: 799. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110799