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Open AccessArticle

Determination of Trichloroethylene in Water by Liquid–Liquid Microextraction Assisted Solid Phase Microextraction

Center for Intelligent Chemical Instrumentation, Clippinger Laboratories, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
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Academic Editor: Mary Boyce
Chromatography 2015, 2(1), 66-78; https://doi.org/10.3390/chromatography2010066
Received: 12 December 2014 / Accepted: 3 February 2015 / Published: 9 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid Phase Micro-Extraction)
A method for the determination of trichloroethylene (TCE) in water using portable gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed. A novel sample preparation method, liquid–liquid microextraction assisted solid phase microextraction (LLME–SPME), is introduced. In this method, 20 µL of hexane was added to 10 mL of TCE contaminated aqueous samples to assist headspace SPME. The extraction efficiency of SPME was significantly improved with the addition of minute amounts of organic solvents (i.e., 20 µL hexane). The absolute recoveries of TCE at different concentrations were increased from 11%–17% for the samples extracted by SPME to 29%–41% for the samples extracted by LLME–SPME. The method was demonstrated to be linear from 10 to 1000 ng mL−1 for TCE in water. The improvements on extraction efficiencies were also observed for toluene and 1, 2, 4-trichlorobenzene in water by using LLME–SPME method. The LLME–SPME method was optimized by using response surface modeling (RSM). View Full-Text
Keywords: liquid–liquid microextraction assisted solid phase microextraction; trichloroethylene; water contaminants liquid–liquid microextraction assisted solid phase microextraction; trichloroethylene; water contaminants
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Zhang, M.; Harrington, P.D.B. Determination of Trichloroethylene in Water by Liquid–Liquid Microextraction Assisted Solid Phase Microextraction. Chromatography 2015, 2, 66-78.

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