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Domestic Risk Factors for Atopic and Non-Atopic Asthma in First Nations Children Living in Saskatchewan, Canada

1
College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2Z4, Canada
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Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, 104 Clinic Place, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2Z4, Canada
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Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 103 Hospital Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X8, Canada
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Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 104 Clinic Place, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2Z4, Canada
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Willow Cree Health Centre, Beardy’s and Okemasis First Nation, P.O. Box 96, Duck Lake, SK S0K 1J0, Canada
6
William Charles Health Centre, Montreal Lake Cree Nation, P.O. Box 240, Montreal Lake, SK S0J 1Y0, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Children 2020, 7(5), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7050038
Received: 27 February 2020 / Revised: 30 March 2020 / Accepted: 21 April 2020 / Published: 27 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Global and Public Health)
Both allergic and non-allergic asthma phenotypes are thought to vary by specific housing and other indoor environmental conditions. This study evaluated risk factors for allergic asthma phenotypes in First Nation children, an understudied Canadian population with recognized increased respiratory morbidity. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a clinical component to assess the respiratory health of 351 school-age children living on two rural reserve communities. Asthma was defined as parental report of physician diagnosed asthma or a report of wheeze in the past 12 months. Atopy was determined by a ≥ 3-mm wheal response to any of six respiratory allergens upon skin prick testing (SPT). Important domestic and personal characteristics evaluated included damp housing conditions, household heating, respiratory infections and passive smoking exposure. Asthma and atopy prevalence were 17.4% and 17.1%, respectively. Of those with asthma, 21.1% were atopic. We performed multivariate multinomial logistic regression modelling with three outcomes: non-atopic asthma, atopic asthma and no asthma for 280 children who underwent SPT. After adjusting for potential confounders, children with atopic asthma were more likely to be obese and to live in homes with either damage due to dampness (p < 0.05) or signs of mildew/mold (p = 0.06). Both natural gas home heating and a history of respiratory related infections were associated with non-atopic asthma (p < 0.01). Domestic risk factors for asthma appear to vary by atopic status in First Nations children. Determining asthma phenotypes could be useful in environmental management of asthma in this population. View Full-Text
Keywords: Atopic asthma; non-atopic asthma; domestic environments; damp housing; Aboriginal Atopic asthma; non-atopic asthma; domestic environments; damp housing; Aboriginal
MDPI and ACS Style

Rennie, D.C.; Karunanayake, C.P.; Lawson, J.A.; Kirychuk, S.; McMullin, K.; Abonyi, S.; Seeseequasis, J.; MacDonald, J.; Dosman, J.A.; Pahwa, P. Domestic Risk Factors for Atopic and Non-Atopic Asthma in First Nations Children Living in Saskatchewan, Canada. Children 2020, 7, 38.

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