Next Article in Journal
Pediatric Compounding Pharmacy: Taking on the Responsibility of Providing Quality Customized Prescriptions
Next Article in Special Issue
Medical Cannabis Certification in a Large Pediatric Oncology Center
Previous Article in Journal
Social Skills in Preschool Children from Teachers’ Perspectives
Previous Article in Special Issue
Children Are Born to Dance! Pediatric Medical Dance/Movement Therapy: The View from Integrative Pediatric Oncology
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Observational Study of Pediatric Inpatient Pain, Nausea/Vomiting and Anxiety

Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada
Integrative Health Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2C8, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Children 2019, 6(5), 65;
Received: 5 April 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 3 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrative Medicine in Pediatric Oncology)
PDF [460 KB, uploaded 20 May 2019]


Background: The prevalence and severity of pain, nausea/vomiting, and anxiety (PNVA) among hospitalized children is not well established. We describe the prevalence and severity of PNVA among hospitalized patients from oncology, general pediatrics, and cardiology services in a tertiary care center. Methods: Patients were recruited on admission and enrolled if their caregiver consented, spoke English, and were anticipated to stay 2–30 days. Symptoms were measured weekdays using age-validated tools. PNVA symptoms were described and compared. Results: We enrolled 496 (49.4%) patients of 1005 admitted. Patients were predominantly Caucasian (57.9%) on their first admission (53.6%). The average (SD) age was 8.6 years (5.9) in oncology, 4.2 (5.3) in general pediatrics and 2.6 (4.0) in cardiology. 325 (65.6%) patients reported anxiety, 275 (55.4%) reported nausea and 256 (52.0%) reported pain. Mean (SD) severity out of 10 was 3.7 (2.5) for anxiety, 3.2 (2.1) for nausea and 3.0 (1.5) for pain. Prevalence of PNVA was no different between clinical programs, but pain (p = 0.008) and nausea (p = 0.006) severity were. PNVA symptom co-occurrence was positively correlated (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Anxiety was the most common and severe symptom for hospitalized children. Patients in oncology demonstrated the least severe pain and nausea with no difference in anxiety between services. View Full-Text
Keywords: pediatric; hospital; pain; nausea; vomiting; anxiety pediatric; hospital; pain; nausea; vomiting; anxiety

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Schlegelmilch, M.; Punja, S.; Jou, H.; Mackie, A.S.; Conway, J.; Wilson, B.; Spavor, M.; Hartfield, D.; Vohra, S. Observational Study of Pediatric Inpatient Pain, Nausea/Vomiting and Anxiety. Children 2019, 6, 65.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Children EISSN 2227-9067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top