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Non-High-Risk Neuroblastoma: Classification and Achievements in Therapy
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Children 2019, 6(2), 27;

The Evolution of Risk Classification for Neuroblastoma

Division of Hematology, Oncology, Neuro-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplant, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Committee on Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment of Neuroblastoma)
PDF [1203 KB, uploaded 22 February 2019]


Neuroblastoma is a tumor with great clinical heterogeneity. Patients in North America are risk-stratified using a number of features including age at diagnosis, disease stage, tumor histology, MYCN status (amplified versus nonamplified), and tumor cell ploidy. In this paper, we review the evidence for utilizing these features in the risk classification of neuroblastic tumors. Additionally, we review the clinical and biologic criteria used by various cooperative groups to define low, intermediate, and high-risk disease populations in clinical trials, highlighting the differences in risk classification internationally. Finally, we discuss the development of the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group classification system, designed to begin worldwide standardization of neuroblastoma pretreatment risk classification and allow comparison of clinical trials conducted through different cooperative groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: neuroblastoma; risk classification neuroblastoma; risk classification

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Sokol, E.; Desai, A.V. The Evolution of Risk Classification for Neuroblastoma. Children 2019, 6, 27.

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