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Open AccessArticle

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Diospyrin on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation Using RAW 264.7 Mouse Macrophages

1
Department of Pharmacy, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan
2
College of Korean Medicine, Gachon University, Seong-nam 13120, Korea
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Swabi, Anbar 23561, KPK, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2020, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8010011
Received: 24 November 2019 / Revised: 6 January 2020 / Accepted: 7 January 2020 / Published: 11 January 2020
Diospyrin is a bisnaphthoquinonoid medicinal compound derived from Diospyros lotus, with known anti-cancer, anti-tubercular, and anti-leishmanial activities against Leishmania donovani. However, the effects of diospyrin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage activation and inflammation are not fully reported. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of diospyrin on LPS-induced macrophages were examined. Diospyrin showed no toxicity in RAW 264.7 at concentrations of up to 10 μM. Diospyrin moderated the production of nitric oxide (NO), monocyte chemotactic protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, leukemia inhibitory factor, and RANTES/CCL5, as well as calcium release in LPS-induced RAW 264.7, at concentrations of up to 10 μM significantly (p < 0.05). Diospyrin also significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and mRNA expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), as well as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6 (Fas), in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells at concentrations of up to 10 μM (p < 0.05). Diospyrin exhibits anti-inflammatory properties mediated via inhibition of NO, and cytokines in LPS-induced mouse macrophages via the ER-stressed calcium-p38 MAPK/CHOP/Fas pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: diospyrin; lipopolysaccharide; anti-inflammation; macrophages; nitric oxide; cytokine; calcium; CHOP; Fas; p38 MAPK diospyrin; lipopolysaccharide; anti-inflammation; macrophages; nitric oxide; cytokine; calcium; CHOP; Fas; p38 MAPK
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Shahidullah, A.; Lee, J.-Y.; Kim, Y.-J.; Halimi, S.M.A.; Rauf, A.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, B.-Y.; Park, W. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Diospyrin on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation Using RAW 264.7 Mouse Macrophages. Biomedicines 2020, 8, 11.

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