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Review

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis Disorders Impacting Female Fertility

1
Division of Reproductive Endocrinology Infertility and Genetics, Augusta University, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Augusta University, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2019, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010005
Received: 1 December 2018 / Revised: 24 December 2018 / Accepted: 26 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
The hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis is a tightly regulated system controlling female reproduction. HPO axis dysfunction leading to ovulation disorders can be classified into three categories defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Group I ovulation disorders involve hypothalamic failure characterized as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Group II disorders display a eugonadal state commonly associated with a wide range of endocrinopathies. Finally, group III constitutes hypergonadotropic hypogonadism secondary to depleted ovarian function. Optimal evaluation and management of these disorders is based on a careful analysis tailored to each patient. This article reviews ovulation disorders based on pathophysiologic mechanisms, evaluation principles, and currently available management options. View Full-Text
Keywords: ovulatory dysfunction; infertility; hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis; WHO ovulation disorders; primary ovarian insufficiency ovulatory dysfunction; infertility; hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis; WHO ovulation disorders; primary ovarian insufficiency
MDPI and ACS Style

Mikhael, S.; Punjala-Patel, A.; Gavrilova-Jordan, L. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis Disorders Impacting Female Fertility. Biomedicines 2019, 7, 5. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010005

AMA Style

Mikhael S, Punjala-Patel A, Gavrilova-Jordan L. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis Disorders Impacting Female Fertility. Biomedicines. 2019; 7(1):5. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010005

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mikhael, Sasha, Advaita Punjala-Patel, and Larisa Gavrilova-Jordan. 2019. "Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis Disorders Impacting Female Fertility" Biomedicines 7, no. 1: 5. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010005

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