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Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis Disorders Impacting Female Fertility

1
Division of Reproductive Endocrinology Infertility and Genetics, Augusta University, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Augusta University, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2019, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010005
Received: 1 December 2018 / Revised: 24 December 2018 / Accepted: 26 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
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Abstract

The hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis is a tightly regulated system controlling female reproduction. HPO axis dysfunction leading to ovulation disorders can be classified into three categories defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Group I ovulation disorders involve hypothalamic failure characterized as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Group II disorders display a eugonadal state commonly associated with a wide range of endocrinopathies. Finally, group III constitutes hypergonadotropic hypogonadism secondary to depleted ovarian function. Optimal evaluation and management of these disorders is based on a careful analysis tailored to each patient. This article reviews ovulation disorders based on pathophysiologic mechanisms, evaluation principles, and currently available management options. View Full-Text
Keywords: ovulatory dysfunction; infertility; hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis; WHO ovulation disorders; primary ovarian insufficiency ovulatory dysfunction; infertility; hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis; WHO ovulation disorders; primary ovarian insufficiency
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Mikhael, S.; Punjala-Patel, A.; Gavrilova-Jordan, L. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis Disorders Impacting Female Fertility. Biomedicines 2019, 7, 5.

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