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Chemosensors 2018, 6(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6030037

From Batch to Flow Stripping Analysis with Screen-Printed Electrodes: A Possible Way to Decentralize Trace Inorganic Analysis

1
Dipartimento di Scienze Teoriche ed Applicate, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Dunant, 3, 22100 Varese, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Scienza ed Alta Tecnologia, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio, 11, 21100 Como, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 29 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Printed Electroanalytical Tools for De-Centralized Applications)
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Abstract

Decentralization of on-site and in-site trace metal analysis has been a key topic over the last 30 years, owing to the increasing need for environmental protection as well as industrial and health-based field applications. In trace (and ultratrace) metal analysis, electrochemical stripping analysis with mercury (or bismuth) screen-printed film electrodes has shown a fast growth in popularity thanks to the good limits of detection, the ease of application in the field, and the low cost. Moreover, the availability of new wall-jet flow cells has opened the opportunity for their use in in situ industrial monitoring. The analytical figures of merit in stripping voltammetry with screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) under decentralized conditions and/or with sensor arrays are heavily affected by some analytical factors, primarily the presence of a pseudo-reference electrode, the efficiency of mass transport during the preconcentration step, and the need for external calibration. A careful model investigation of the analytical parameters for an efficient use of SPEs in decentralized conditions has been undertaken and discussed. Different instrumental approaches were investigated, comparing optimized batch conditions and flow cell operation under either continuous flow or stopped-flow sample injection. The stripping efficiency under wall-jet flow conditions was found to be high and comparable to that in batch conditions, leading to sub-ppb (μg/L) limit of detection (LOD) figures. Finally, external calibration in stripping voltammetry was studied as a viable alternative to conventional standard addition quantitation. Results showed, indeed, that external calibration was demonstrated to be reliable for quantitation of Pb and Cd in real water samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: stripping voltammetry; screen-printed electrodes; trace inorganic analysis; electroanalysis; batch vs flow cells stripping voltammetry; screen-printed electrodes; trace inorganic analysis; electroanalysis; batch vs flow cells
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Dossi, C.; Monticelli, D.; Pozzi, A.; Recchia, S. From Batch to Flow Stripping Analysis with Screen-Printed Electrodes: A Possible Way to Decentralize Trace Inorganic Analysis. Chemosensors 2018, 6, 37.

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