Next Article in Journal
Synthesis, Curing Behavior and Swell Tests of pH-Responsive Coatings from Acryl-Terminated Oligo(β-Amino Esters)
Next Article in Special Issue
Honey Evaluation Using Electronic Tongues: An Overview
Previous Article in Journal
Nitric Oxide Sensors for Biological Applications
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Chemosensors 2018, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6010009

Exploring the Emotion of Disgust: Differences in Smelling and Feeling

1
Centre for Comparative & Evolutionary Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2DY, UK
2
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, TU Dresden, Dresden 01307, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic nose’s, Machine Olfaction and Electronic Tongue’s)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1447 KB, uploaded 24 February 2018]   |  

Abstract

Disgust evolved to motivate humans away from disease cues and may heighten discernment of these cues. Disease cues are often best perceived through our sense of smell, however very few studies have examined how eliciting disgust influences smell intensity or valence. In two novel experiments we investigated how domains of disgust induction influence odor perception. In experiment 1 participants (n = 90) were randomly allocated to one of two kinds of Disgust Induction (DI): Pathogen (DI-P), Moral (DI-M) or a Control (DI-C), followed by an evaluation of three affectively distinct odors (disgust-related, neutral, liked). Using a modified procedure in experiment 2, participants (n = 70) were again randomly assigned to one of the three disgust induction conditions, but here they evaluated one (disgust-related) odor during disgust induction. In experiment 2 we also measured feelings of disgust and anger. In experiment 1, surprisingly, we found overall ratings of odor disgust were lower in the DI-P compared to other groups, whereas in experiment 2, odor disgust was higher in the DI-P versus the DI-M/DI-C conditions, which also differed from each other. We also found that whereas feelings of disgust were higher in DI-P, in contrast, anger was higher for those individuals in the DI-M condition. These findings suggest that compared to a Control condition, inducing state Pathogen and Moral disgust lead to higher perceived odor disgust, whereas feelings of disgust/anger yield divergent effects. The work here also demonstrates that methodologies utilizing odor perception (disgust) can be a useful addition to measuring changes in state disgust. View Full-Text
Keywords: disgust; emotions; evolutionary psychology; odor disgust; emotions; evolutionary psychology; odor
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Stafford, L.D.; Fleischman, D.S.; Le Her, N.; Hummel, T. Exploring the Emotion of Disgust: Differences in Smelling and Feeling. Chemosensors 2018, 6, 9.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Chemosensors EISSN 2227-9040 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top