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Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias

1
Department of Neurology, Laboratory of Neurogenetics, University Hospital of Larissa, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly Biopolis, Mezourlo Hill, 41100 Larissa, Greece
2
Multiple Sclerosis Center, B’Department of Neurology, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54636 Thessaloniki, Greece
3
Neuropsychology Section, Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, University Hospital of Patras and University of Patras, Medical School, 26504 Patras, Greece
4
Department of Speech and Language Therapy, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, 45500 Ioannina, Greece
5
Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University General Hospital of Larissa, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Viopolis, 40500 Larissa, Greece
6
Department of Neurology, Athens Naval Hospital, Deinokratous 70, 11521 Athens, Greece
7
Association for Regional Development and Mental Health (EPAPSY), 15124 Marousi, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Phyo Kyaw Myint
Healthcare 2021, 9(8), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9080949
Received: 26 May 2021 / Revised: 9 July 2021 / Accepted: 17 July 2021 / Published: 28 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurorehabilitation: Looking Back and Moving Forward)
Dementia is a debilitating impairment of cognitive functions that affects millions of people worldwide. There are several diseases belonging to the dementia spectrum, most prominently Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular dementia (VD), Lewy body dementia (LBD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a safe, non-invasive form of brain stimulation that utilizes a magnetic coil to generate an electrical field and induce numerous changes in the brain. It is considered efficacious for the treatment of various neuropsychiatric disorders. In this paper, we review the available studies involving rTMS in the treatment of these dementia types. The majority of studies have involved AD and shown beneficial effects, either as a standalone, or as an add-on to standard-of-care pharmacological treatment and cognitive training. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex seems to hold a central position in the applied protocols, but several parameters still need to be defined. In addition, rTMS has shown potential in mild cognitive impairment as well. Regarding the remaining dementias, research is still at preliminary phases, and large, randomized studies are currently lacking. View Full-Text
Keywords: rTMS; dementia; Alzheimer’s disease; magnetic stimulation; non-pharmacological treatments rTMS; dementia; Alzheimer’s disease; magnetic stimulation; non-pharmacological treatments
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aloizou, A.-M.; Pateraki, G.; Anargyros, K.; Siokas, V.; Bakirtzis, C.; Sgantzos, M.; Messinis, L.; Nasios, G.; Peristeri, E.; Bogdanos, D.P.; Doskas, T.K.; Tzeferakos, G.; Dardiotis, E. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias. Healthcare 2021, 9, 949. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9080949

AMA Style

Aloizou A-M, Pateraki G, Anargyros K, Siokas V, Bakirtzis C, Sgantzos M, Messinis L, Nasios G, Peristeri E, Bogdanos DP, Doskas TK, Tzeferakos G, Dardiotis E. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias. Healthcare. 2021; 9(8):949. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9080949

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aloizou, Athina-Maria, Georgia Pateraki, Konstantinos Anargyros, Vasileios Siokas, Christos Bakirtzis, Markos Sgantzos, Lambros Messinis, Grigorios Nasios, Eleni Peristeri, Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, Triantafyllos K. Doskas, Georgios Tzeferakos, and Efthimios Dardiotis. 2021. "Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias" Healthcare 9, no. 8: 949. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9080949

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