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A Greek Validation Study of the Multiple Sclerosis Work Difficulties Questionnaire-23

Multiple Sclerosis Center, Second Department of Neurology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Faculty of Medicine, University of Cyprus, Nicosia CY 2029, Cyprus
Third University Department of Psychiatry, AHEPA University General Hospital, GR 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
School of Psychological Sciences, College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, TAS 7250 Launceston, Australia
Neuropsychology Section, University Hospital of Patras, GR 26504 Patras, Greece
Department of Speech and Language Therapy, University of Ioannina, GR 45110 Ioannina, Greece
Department of Neurology, University of Thessaly, GR 41500 Larisa, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equally contributing first authors.
Academic Editor: Konrad Rejdak
Healthcare 2021, 9(7), 897;
Received: 25 May 2021 / Revised: 2 July 2021 / Accepted: 13 July 2021 / Published: 15 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurorehabilitation: Looking Back and Moving Forward)
The Multiple Sclerosis Work Difficulties Questionnaire-23 (MSWDQ-23) is a self-report instrument developed to assess barriers faced by People with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS) in the workplace. The aim of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Greek version of the MSWDQ-23. The study sample consisted of 196 PwMS, all currently working in part- or full-time jobs. Participants underwent clinical examination and cognitive screening with the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) and completed self-report measures of fatigue, psychological functioning, and quality of life, along with the MSWDQ-23 questionnaire. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was performed, and goodness-of-fit measures were used to evaluate construct validity. Convergent validity was checked by correlating MSWDQ-23 scores with study measures. Cronbach’s alpha value was produced to assess internal consistency. CFA yielded a model with a fair fit confirming the three-factor structure of the instrument. Higher work difficulties were associated with higher Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, poorer cognitive function, more fatigue, stress, anxiety, and depression, and poorer health status, supporting the convergent validity of MSWDQ-23. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.94) and test–retest reliability (ICC = 0.996, 95%, CI = 0.990–0.998) were excellent. The Greek MSWDQ-23 can be considered a valid patient-reported outcome measure and can be used in interventions aiming to improve the vocational status of PwMS. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; employment; patient-reported outcome; MSWDQ-23; validation multiple sclerosis; employment; patient-reported outcome; MSWDQ-23; validation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bakirtzis, C.; Artemiadis, A.; Nteli, E.; Boziki, M.K.; Karakasi, M.-V.; Honan, C.; Messinis, L.; Nasios, G.; Dardiotis, E.; Grigoriadis, N. A Greek Validation Study of the Multiple Sclerosis Work Difficulties Questionnaire-23. Healthcare 2021, 9, 897.

AMA Style

Bakirtzis C, Artemiadis A, Nteli E, Boziki MK, Karakasi M-V, Honan C, Messinis L, Nasios G, Dardiotis E, Grigoriadis N. A Greek Validation Study of the Multiple Sclerosis Work Difficulties Questionnaire-23. Healthcare. 2021; 9(7):897.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bakirtzis, Christos, Artemios Artemiadis, Elli Nteli, Marina K. Boziki, Maria-Valeria Karakasi, Cynthia Honan, Lambros Messinis, Grigorios Nasios, Efthimios Dardiotis, and Nikolaos Grigoriadis. 2021. "A Greek Validation Study of the Multiple Sclerosis Work Difficulties Questionnaire-23" Healthcare 9, no. 7: 897.

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