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Urinary Sodium Excretion Enhances the Effect of Alcohol on Blood Pressure

Division of Biosciences, Department of Life Sciences, College of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Brunel University London, London UB8 3PH, UK
Faculty of Information Technology, Nusa Mandiri University, Jakarta 10450, Indonesia
Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London W12 7TA, UK
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W12 7TA, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Phyo Kyaw Myint
Healthcare 2022, 10(7), 1296;
Received: 20 May 2022 / Revised: 4 July 2022 / Accepted: 12 July 2022 / Published: 13 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Methods in Cardiovascular Research)
Alcohol consumption is linked to urinary sodium excretion and both of these traits are linked to hypertension and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The interplay between alcohol consumption and sodium on hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is not well-described. Here, we used genetically predicted alcohol consumption and explored the relationships between alcohol consumption, urinary sodium, hypertension, and CVDs. Methods: We performed a comparative analysis among 295,189 participants from the prospective cohort of the UK Biobank (baseline data collected between 2006 and 2010). We created a genetic risk score (GRS) using 105 published genetic variants in Europeans that were associated with alcohol consumption. We explored the relationships between GRS, alcohol consumption, urinary sodium, blood pressure traits, and incident CVD. We used linear and logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards (PH) models and Mendelian randomization in our analysis. Results: The median follow-up time for composite CVD and stroke were 6.1 years and 7.1 years respectively. Our analyses showed that high alcohol consumption is linked to low urinary sodium excretion. Our results showed that high alcohol GRS was associated with high blood pressure and higher risk of stroke and supported an interaction effect between alcohol GRS and urinary sodium on stage 2 hypertension (Pinteraction = 0.03) and CVD (Pinteraction = 0.03), i.e., in the presence of high urinary sodium excretion, the effect of alcohol GRS on blood pressure may be enhanced. Conclusions: Our results show that urinary sodium excretion may offset the risk posed by genetic risk of alcohol consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: genetics of alcohol; urinary sodium; cardiovascular traits genetics of alcohol; urinary sodium; cardiovascular traits
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, X.; Anasanti, M.D.; Drenos, F.; Blakemore, A.I.; Pazoki, R. Urinary Sodium Excretion Enhances the Effect of Alcohol on Blood Pressure. Healthcare 2022, 10, 1296.

AMA Style

Jiang X, Anasanti MD, Drenos F, Blakemore AI, Pazoki R. Urinary Sodium Excretion Enhances the Effect of Alcohol on Blood Pressure. Healthcare. 2022; 10(7):1296.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jiang, Xiyun, Mila D. Anasanti, Fotios Drenos, Alexandra I. Blakemore, and Raha Pazoki. 2022. "Urinary Sodium Excretion Enhances the Effect of Alcohol on Blood Pressure" Healthcare 10, no. 7: 1296.

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