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Article

Virtual Feedback for Arm Motor Function Rehabilitation after Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial

1
Laboratory of Rehabilitation Technologies, IRCCS San Camillo Hospital, 30126 Venice, Italy
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Padova Neuroscience Center, Università degli Studi di Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
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IRCCS San Camillo Hospital, 30126 Venice, Italy
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Department of Neuroscience, Section of Rehabilitation, University-General Hospital of Padova, 35122 Padova, Italy
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Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences—DIBINEM, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy
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Operative Unit Occupational Medicine, IRCCS Policlinico Sant’Orsola-Malpighi, 40138 Bologna, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Chaoyang Chen and Joaquim Carreras
Healthcare 2022, 10(7), 1175; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10071175
Received: 9 May 2022 / Revised: 20 June 2022 / Accepted: 21 June 2022 / Published: 23 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virtual Reality and Robotics Interventions for Neurological Diseases)
A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare whether the continuous visualization of a virtual teacher, during virtual reality rehabilitation, is more effective than the same treatment provided without a virtual teacher visualization, for the recovery of arm motor function after stroke. Teacher and no-teacher groups received the same amount of virtual reality therapy (i.e., 1 h/d, 5 dd/w, 4 ww) and an additional hour of conventional therapy. In the teacher group, specific feedback (“virtual-teacher”) showing the correct kinematic to be emulated by the patient was always displayed online during exercises. In the no-teacher group patients performed the same exercises, without the virtual-teacher assistance. The primary outcome measure was Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity after treatment. 124 patients were enrolled and randomized, 62 per group. No differences were observed between the groups, but the same number of patients (χ2 = 0.29, p = 0.59) responded to experimental and control interventions in each group. The results confirm that the manipulation of a single instant feedback does not provide clinical advantages over multimodal feedback for arm rehabilitation after stroke, but combining 40 h conventional therapy and virtual reality provides large effect of intervention (i.e., Cohen’s d 1.14 and 0.92 for the two groups, respectively). View Full-Text
Keywords: stroke; rehabilitation; virtual reality; upper limb; motor learning stroke; rehabilitation; virtual reality; upper limb; motor learning
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salvalaggio, S.; Kiper, P.; Pregnolato, G.; Baldan, F.; Agostini, M.; Maistrello, L.; Turolla, A. Virtual Feedback for Arm Motor Function Rehabilitation after Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Healthcare 2022, 10, 1175. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10071175

AMA Style

Salvalaggio S, Kiper P, Pregnolato G, Baldan F, Agostini M, Maistrello L, Turolla A. Virtual Feedback for Arm Motor Function Rehabilitation after Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Healthcare. 2022; 10(7):1175. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10071175

Chicago/Turabian Style

Salvalaggio, Silvia, Pawel Kiper, Giorgia Pregnolato, Francesca Baldan, Michela Agostini, Lorenza Maistrello, and Andrea Turolla. 2022. "Virtual Feedback for Arm Motor Function Rehabilitation after Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial" Healthcare 10, no. 7: 1175. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10071175

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