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Article

Electro-Mechanical Whole-Heart Digital Twins: A Fully Coupled Multi-Physics Approach

1
Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
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Institute of Applied and Numerical Mathematics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
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Institute for Experimental Cardiovascular Medicine, University Heart Center Freiburg · Bad Krozingen and Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rafael Sebastian
Mathematics 2021, 9(11), 1247; https://doi.org/10.3390/math9111247
Received: 19 April 2021 / Revised: 19 May 2021 / Accepted: 27 May 2021 / Published: 29 May 2021
Mathematical models of the human heart are evolving to become a cornerstone of precision medicine and support clinical decision making by providing a powerful tool to understand the mechanisms underlying pathophysiological conditions. In this study, we present a detailed mathematical description of a fully coupled multi-scale model of the human heart, including electrophysiology, mechanics, and a closed-loop model of circulation. State-of-the-art models based on human physiology are used to describe membrane kinetics, excitation-contraction coupling and active tension generation in the atria and the ventricles. Furthermore, we highlight ways to adapt this framework to patient specific measurements to build digital twins. The validity of the model is demonstrated through simulations on a personalized whole heart geometry based on magnetic resonance imaging data of a healthy volunteer. Additionally, the fully coupled model was employed to evaluate the effects of a typical atrial ablation scar on the cardiovascular system. With this work, we provide an adaptable multi-scale model that allows a comprehensive personalization from ion channels to the organ level enabling digital twin modeling. View Full-Text
Keywords: computational modeling; whole heart; electro-mechanic coupling; multi-physics; closed-loop circulation computational modeling; whole heart; electro-mechanic coupling; multi-physics; closed-loop circulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gerach, T.; Schuler, S.; Fröhlich, J.; Lindner, L.; Kovacheva, E.; Moss, R.; Wülfers, E.M.; Seemann, G.; Wieners, C.; Loewe, A. Electro-Mechanical Whole-Heart Digital Twins: A Fully Coupled Multi-Physics Approach. Mathematics 2021, 9, 1247. https://doi.org/10.3390/math9111247

AMA Style

Gerach T, Schuler S, Fröhlich J, Lindner L, Kovacheva E, Moss R, Wülfers EM, Seemann G, Wieners C, Loewe A. Electro-Mechanical Whole-Heart Digital Twins: A Fully Coupled Multi-Physics Approach. Mathematics. 2021; 9(11):1247. https://doi.org/10.3390/math9111247

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gerach, Tobias, Steffen Schuler, Jonathan Fröhlich, Laura Lindner, Ekaterina Kovacheva, Robin Moss, Eike Moritz Wülfers, Gunnar Seemann, Christian Wieners, and Axel Loewe. 2021. "Electro-Mechanical Whole-Heart Digital Twins: A Fully Coupled Multi-Physics Approach" Mathematics 9, no. 11: 1247. https://doi.org/10.3390/math9111247

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