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Mathematics 2019, 7(4), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/math7040323

Indirect Effects, Biotic Inferential Interactions and Time Functions in H-Semiotic Systems: Ecosystems Case

1
Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain
2
Institute of Education, Dublin City University, D09 Y18 Dublin, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 28 March 2019 / Published: 31 March 2019
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PDF [356 KB, uploaded 17 April 2019]

Abstract

The main objectives of this paper are to formulate an introduction to the mathematical theory of indirect effects with respect to some biotic relations, including symbiosis, commensalism, mutualism and predation, along with the time functions for these relationships. We employ the theory of system linkage in Patten’s Theory of Environment to develop an analysis of the theoretical properties of direct and indirect influences, using the variables and structure of each system involved in the linkage. In this paper, in order to formulate the mathematical theory, we develop, as a contribution to Patten’s Theory of Environment, so-called H-semiotic systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: ecological system; ecosystem; network; structural function; systems ecological system; ecosystem; network; structural function; systems
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Usó-Doménech, J.-L.; Nescolarde-Selva, J.-A.; Lloret-Climent, M.; Gash, H.; Alonso-Stenberg, K. Indirect Effects, Biotic Inferential Interactions and Time Functions in H-Semiotic Systems: Ecosystems Case. Mathematics 2019, 7, 323.

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