# Robert Rosen’s Anticipatory Systems Theory: The Science of Life and Mind

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. The Importance of the Modeling Relation

- (1)
- Causal (Entailment): This represents the underlying entailment that drives the ongoing behaviors and capabilities of the Natural system: Why it is the way it is and does the things it does.
- (2)
- Encoding: This represents the process of observing the Natural system, learning about the causal entailment that is generating what we observe, encoding that entailment into a form that we create but that logically follows the same pattern as the causal entailment of the Natural system, allowing us to build the Formal system—the model.
- (3)
- Inference (Inferential Entailment): This represents the encoded form of entailment as a similarly ongoing process that can be run forward or backward in time or interact with altered circumstances in various ways.
- (4)
- Decoding: This arrow represents taking the predictions generated by the model and comparing them with what the Natural system is actually doing. If they match, then we have achieved the modeling relation and our model is reliable. If the predictions do not match what the Natural system is doing, then we must figure out why. That means running through the four numbered arrows again to see what we missed, what was improperly encoded, or what else could be wrong.

## 2. Living Organisms as Anticipatory Systems

## 3. The Existence of Error in Biological Systems

## 4. Human Nature as Dual Anticipatory Systems, and Anticipatory Dysfunction

## 5. The Concept of Expectation

## 6. Conclusions and Food for Thought

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

- Rosen, R.; Rosen, J.; Kineman, J.J.; Nadin, M. Anticipatory Systems: Philosophical, Mathematical, and Methodological Foundations, 2nd ed.; Klir, G., Ed.; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Rosen, R. Life, Itself: A Comprehensive Inquiry Into The Nature, Origin, and Fabrication of Life; Allen, T.F.H., Ed.; Columbia University Press: New York, NY, USA, 1991. [Google Scholar]
- Rosen, R. Essays on Life, Itself; Columbia University Press: New York, NY, USA, 2000. [Google Scholar]

Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. |

© 2022 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Rosen, J. Robert Rosen’s Anticipatory Systems Theory: The Science of Life and Mind. *Mathematics* **2022**, *10*, 4172.
https://doi.org/10.3390/math10224172

**AMA Style**

Rosen J. Robert Rosen’s Anticipatory Systems Theory: The Science of Life and Mind. *Mathematics*. 2022; 10(22):4172.
https://doi.org/10.3390/math10224172

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Rosen, Judith. 2022. "Robert Rosen’s Anticipatory Systems Theory: The Science of Life and Mind" *Mathematics* 10, no. 22: 4172.
https://doi.org/10.3390/math10224172