spp. are Gram negative intracellular bacteria responsible for brucellosis, a worldwide distributed zoonosis. A prominent aspect of the Brucella life cycle is its ability to invade, survive and multiply within host cells. Comprehensive approaches, such as proteomics, have aided in unravelling the molecular mechanisms underlying Brucella pathogenesis. Technological and methodological advancements such as increased instrument performance and multiplexed quantification have broadened the range of proteome studies, enabling new and improved analyses, providing deeper and more accurate proteome coverage. Indeed, proteomics has demonstrated its contribution to key research questions in Brucella biology, i.e., immunodominant proteins, host-cell interaction, stress response, antibiotic targets and resistance, protein secretion. Here, we review the proteomics of Brucella with a focus on more recent works and novel findings, ranging from reconfiguration of the intracellular bacterial proteome and studies on proteomic profiles of Brucella infected tissues, to the identification of Brucella extracellular proteins with putative roles in cell signaling and pathogenesis. In conclusion, proteomics has yielded copious new candidates and hypotheses that require future verification. It is expected that proteomics will continue to be an invaluable tool for Brucella and applications will further extend to the currently ill-explored aspects including, among others, protein processing and post-translational modification.
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