Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Comparative “Golgi” Proteome Study of Lolium multiflorum and Populus trichocarpa
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Understanding the Remodelling of Cell Walls during Brachypodium distachyon Grain Development through a Sub-Cellular Quantitative Proteomic Approach
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Protein Dynamics in the Plant Extracellular Space

Centro de Investigação das Ferrugens do Cafeeiro (CIFC), Instituto Superior de Agronomia (ISA), Universidade de Lisboa (UL), Quinta do Marquês, 2784-505 Oeiras, Portugal
Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food (LEAF), Instituto Superior de Agronomia (ISA), Universidade de Lisboa (UL), 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal
Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica (ITQB), Universidade NOVA de Lisboa (UNL), 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal
Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa (UNL), 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica (IBET), 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal
Departamento de Fitossanidade, Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel (FAEM), Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPEL), 96010-610 Pelotas-RS, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nicolas L. Taylor and Jacek R. Wisniewski
Proteomes 2016, 4(3), 22;
Received: 28 May 2016 / Revised: 7 July 2016 / Accepted: 7 July 2016 / Published: 13 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sub-cellular Proteomics)
PDF [2310 KB, uploaded 13 July 2016]


The extracellular space (ECS or apoplast) is the plant cell compartment external to the plasma membrane, which includes the cell walls, the intercellular space and the apoplastic fluid (APF). The present review is focused on APF proteomics papers and intends to draw information on the metabolic processes occurring in the ECS under abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as under non-challenged conditions. The large majority of the proteins detected are involved in “cell wall organization and biogenesis”, “response to stimulus” and “protein metabolism”. It becomes apparent that some proteins are always detected, irrespective of the experimental conditions, although with different relative contribution. This fact suggests that non-challenged plants have intrinsic constitutive metabolic processes of stress/defense in the ECS. In addition to the multiple functions ascribed to the ECS proteins, should be considered the interactions established between themselves and with the plasma membrane and its components. These interactions are crucial in connecting exterior and interior of the cell, and even simple protein actions in the ECS can have profound effects on plant performance. The proteins of the ECS are permanently contributing to the high dynamic nature of this plant compartment, which seems fundamental to plant development and adaptation to the environmental conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: apoplastic fluid; biological processes; cell wall; dicot plants; intercellular space; proteomic analysis apoplastic fluid; biological processes; cell wall; dicot plants; intercellular space; proteomic analysis

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Guerra-Guimarães, L.; Pinheiro, C.; Chaves, I.; Barros, D.R.; Ricardo, C.P. Protein Dynamics in the Plant Extracellular Space. Proteomes 2016, 4, 22.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Proteomes EISSN 2227-7382 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top