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Educ. Sci. 2015, 5(2), 179-198;

Investigating Gender and Racial/Ethnic Invariance in Use of a Course Management System in Higher Education

Faculty of Education Southwest University, No.2 Tiansheng Road, BeiBei District, Chongqing 400715, China
School of Education, 350 Huntington Hall, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA
Information Technology Department, West Virginia University, PO Box 6500, Morgantown, WV 26506-6500, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jing Lei
Received: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 2 June 2015 / Published: 10 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Issues in Educational Technology)
PDF [354 KB, uploaded 10 June 2015]


This study focused on learning equity in colleges and universities where teaching and learning depends heavily on computer technologies. The study used the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to investigate gender and racial/ethnic heterogeneity in the use of a computer based course management system (CMS). Two latent variables (CMS usage and scholastic aptitudes)—with two moderation covariates (gender and ethnicity)—were used to explore their associational relationships with students’ final grades. More than 990 students’ CMS data were collected from courses at a Midwest public university in the United States. The final model indicated that there was gender and racial/ethnic invariance in the use of the CMS. Additionally, CMS use was significantly positively associated with students’ academic achievement. These findings have policy and practical implications for understanding the correlation between technology use and academic achievement in colleges and universities. This study also pointed out future research directions for technology use in higher education. View Full-Text
Keywords: CMS; gender/ethnicity inequity; higher education; technology CMS; gender/ethnicity inequity; higher education; technology

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Li, Y.; Wang, Q.; Campbell, J. Investigating Gender and Racial/Ethnic Invariance in Use of a Course Management System in Higher Education. Educ. Sci. 2015, 5, 179-198.

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