An Observational Narrative of Student Reaction to Video Hooks
2. Video Hooks and Conceptual Framework
2.1. Setting the Context
2.2. Video Hook Design
2.3. Conceptual Framework: Interest, Attention, Engagement
3. Materials & Methods
3.1. Participants & Classroom Interventions
3.2. Data Collection Methods
- Factual and physical data: Teacher, Time and day of class, Year, School, Numbers in class (Boys/Girls), Location of class (Lab or classroom/other), Drawing of the layout of the classroom (plan), Specific topic being taught, Hook used, technology used to play hook, Time during class hook was used.
- Instruction/Pedagogy: Any teaching methods that linked to the hook used by teachers, before, during or after playing the video
- Students’ affective state: Student reaction just before hook, Student reaction during hook, Students reaction immediately post hook, Student reaction throughout the lesson post hook.
3.3. Ethical Consideration
3.4. Data Analysis
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. Triggered Student Reaction
Catherine: …like I heard one of the girls and I know she is extremely, extremely smart, she em, the bit about the Blu-Tak, she went ‘o my god, look at that…’(Interview IC15)
Yvette: When they see something different then it really gets them to kind of like, why did that happen and to get them I suppose, yeah generate their interest in the topic and wanting to find out more… That did not happen the way I thought it was going to happen.(Interview IY15)
James: There’s ones there like, say the centre of gravity one, they didn’t believe that one worked.(Interview IY15)
Yvette: They will kinda say, look it, you can see it there with your eyes, like, and its creating that conflict in their heads.(Interview IY15)
Aisling: but I think that’s it, I think it’s the fact that it is not the result they are expecting so they, they might think the oil will float, but most think that maple syrup will as well because it looks kind of similar, […] whereas when it doesn’t, they’re like, ‘why is that?’(Interview IY15)
Aisling: I mean they do see things sometimes and they will be like a no that’s not right or I don’t feel that’s the case…(Interview IA15)
Aisling: …they loved the density tower, o my god, they absolutely loved it, they thought it was really cool, and as I said they were kinda like, we want to do that.(Interview IA15)
Emma: a video is at face value, a video and whatever they get out of it […] I just didn’t expect them to be so into it’.(Interview IE115)
Many of the students sit up during the video, especially the ones on the back.(Observation ROR15)
The students are really paying attention during the video, they are sitting up in their chairs and they seem to be very interested. The students seem to be answering the questions that are placed on the screen and in the video, they sometimes look at each other and attempt to explain the answers to each other.(Observation ROC15)
Richard: Definitely attention…immediately afterwards you noticed that they were, they were, they got into the activity a lot quicker than they would have usually you know they would spend a bit of time and be half a chat and you would have a few minutes gone before everybody would be settled to it(Observation ROC15)
4.2. Maintained Student Reaction
Denise: Even then for homework I was giving an example of friction? and when I was going around looking at the copies some of them had said ‘if you put a knife into rice’ (referring to content from hook video).(Interview ID15)
Aisling: I mean the fact that they can actually relate the stuff they saw in the videos to a test that they did a week later, I mean, I mean that is showing a long-term impact and actually I could see based on their answers, they were referencing the video.(Interview IA15)
Emma: …well I had one massive impact and it was the energy conversion one, the weakest student in the class and eh, he was the person who came up with the can […] the next day and so, it has given him massive, I suppose the effect it had on him was massive because the rest of them know he’s very weak because it’s quite a strong class and he’s the weakest. He has, he is better at practical work and he’s so quiet and there he was coming in with the object that everyone else could use then.(Interview IA215)
Richard: …the level of the questions that they asked were much better than other lessons, I think the way that they, the way they worded their questions, maybe that they were just thinking about things more and that would be, not at all… be reflective of what you would usually get back…(Interview IR15)
Catherine: …what was even more interesting is what came from it (the hook), the questions that they had, like: what if?(Interview IC15)
The students are asking excellent questions. The questions were derived from the hook and are about forces.(Observation ROR15)
Yet, they are still working hard trying to do it (perform the experiment) in class […] they simply want to achieve a goal they have observed and prove it to themselves and the rest of the class.(Observation OD15)
In addition, everyone was able to make a prediction based upon their intuitive knowledge. Students let out shouts of ‘ya’ and ‘yes’ as they were proven correct.(Reflection ORA15)
Emma: I went through it (the hook) and they remembered every detail. They spotted even things like there was hot water put in, into the can, down to, they noticed that it was one third of the volume of the can that was put in.(Interview IE115)
Emma: They had a high level of knowledge and they were able to spot it all and they were able to apply other knowledge to the video, so it was consolidating all their knowledge.(Interview IE115)
One thing I couldn’t believe is how much information the students extracted from the video. They answered questions about the video more efficiently and faster than any other questions that were asked during class. The students knew every fact about the video, and I found it very surprising. For example, they remember all of the objects that dropped into the density tower, such as the ping pong ball and the nail.(Reflection ORC15)
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Teacher Interview Schedule
- What are your thoughts on the hooks project as a whole? (Do they work, worthy resource?)
- Describe the impact that the video hooks had on your teaching, if any?
- Can you describe the teaching strategy that you employed in association with the hook? (Why did you use this strategy?) (Has this strategy changed over the course of the project?)
- What process do you go through when deciding on what videos to use in class?
- How do you decide on how to use the video in class?
- Do you use them as hooks or for other applications?
- Would you have preferred to perform a live demo of the video hook content?
- Describe the impact, if any, that the video hooks had on your students?
- Were there any differences in the way hooks impacted on stronger vs weaker students?
- The video hooks are designed to have an influence on attention, interest and engagement. Did you notice this influence over the course of the study or would you use another word to describe the impact?
- How long do you think any impact lasted on the class?
- The videos are characterised as hooks; do you think their main purpose is as a hook or do you think it could be used as a revision tool or a transition tool in class?
- If you used the videos on a regular basis, do you think that the video hooks would work as a long-term method of developing sustained attention, interest or engagement in science or physics?
- How would you improve the video hooks?
- What are the worst features about the video hook design?
- What are the best features about the video hook design?
- If you could design you own video hook, what would you make and what would you include?
Appendix B. Student Observation Schedule
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|Atmospheric Pressure||This hook displays how atmospheric pressure can be used to crush aluminium cans. A can is filled with steam and then inverted into cold water. The steam condenses to create a vacuum and the pressure of the atmosphere forces the can to implode.||1:36|
|Centre of Gravity||This hook takes objects that do not intuitively balance and puts them together. Three separate balancing acts are presented; the combination of a spoon, fork and toothpick, a hammer ruler and string and finally a sledgehammer, twine and a metre stick.||1:45|
|Conservation of Energy||This hook displays the concept of the conservation of energy, the principle that energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can only be changed from one form to another. In the experiment, a weight is tied onto a piece of string and used as a pendulum.||1:08|
|Density||This hook displays a density tower. Various immiscible (will not mix) liquids are placed in a graduated cylinder to see which ones are the most and least dense.||2:57|
|Energy Conversions||This hook turns chemical energy into heat energy and then into kinetic energy by using water as an energy transporter and converter in a simple steam engine.||1:34|
|Flotation||This hook explores the density of objects in relation to water. Objects include fruit, soda cans and eggs.||1:28|
|Friction||This hook examines friction as a force and lubrication. It demonstrates the frictional force by inserting a knife into a graduated cylinder of rice.||1:11|
|Pressure||This hook explores pressure and area by placing a balloon on a single nail versus a bed of nails.||0:42|
|Sound||In this hook, the sound made by a tuning fork is explored. If the tuning fork is struck, the vibrations created in the air produce a quiet sound and force. The force is then used to create a piece of art.||1:29|
|Hook Teaching Strategy||Description||Teachers Who Used the Hook Strategy during Their Observed Lesson|
|Pre/Post||The teacher designed additional activities to supplement the video. Students engaged in these before and after the video hook||Aisling; Bill; Catherine; Emma; James; Richard|
|Segmentation||The teacher paused the video at key moments and interjected with questions and activities throughout the video hook.||Aisling; Denise; Eva|
|Guided/Structured IBL||The video hook was used as a driver for IBL, whereby students explored the same science in their classroom using physical equipment.||Bill; Denise; Eva|
|Post Revision Strategy||The teacher used the video as a way of assessing student understanding near the end of a lesson||Helen; Yvette|
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McCauley, V.; McHugh, M. An Observational Narrative of Student Reaction to Video Hooks. Educ. Sci. 2021, 11, 286. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11060286
McCauley V, McHugh M. An Observational Narrative of Student Reaction to Video Hooks. Education Sciences. 2021; 11(6):286. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11060286Chicago/Turabian Style
McCauley, Veronica, and Martin McHugh. 2021. "An Observational Narrative of Student Reaction to Video Hooks" Education Sciences 11, no. 6: 286. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11060286