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Technologies 2016, 4(3), 26;

Neural Operant Conditioning as a Core Mechanism of Brain-Machine Interface Control

Laboratory of Neural Information, Graduate School of Brain Science, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0394, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mikhail A. Lebedev
Received: 11 May 2016 / Revised: 19 August 2016 / Accepted: 22 August 2016 / Published: 26 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain-Machine Interface Technology)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1570 KB, uploaded 26 August 2016]   |  


The process of changing the neuronal activity of the brain to acquire rewards in a broad sense is essential for utilizing brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), which is essentially operant conditioning of neuronal activity. Currently, this is also known as neural biofeedback, and it is often referred to as neurofeedback when human brain activity is targeted. In this review, we first illustrate biofeedback and operant conditioning, which are methodological background elements in neural operant conditioning. Then, we introduce research models of neural operant conditioning in animal experiments and demonstrate that it is possible to change the firing frequency and synchronous firing of local neuronal populations in a short time period. We also debate the possibility of the application of neural operant conditioning and its contribution to BMIs. View Full-Text
Keywords: neurofeedback; operant conditioning; brain-machine interface; neural plasticity neurofeedback; operant conditioning; brain-machine interface; neural plasticity

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Sakurai, Y.; Song, K. Neural Operant Conditioning as a Core Mechanism of Brain-Machine Interface Control. Technologies 2016, 4, 26.

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