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Open AccessArticle

Flobsion—Flexible Option with Benefit Sharing

Ecosystems Services and Management Program (ESM), International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria
Environmental Defense Fund, 1875 Connecticut Ave NW #600, Washington, DC 20009, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2019, 7(2), 22;
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Financial Economics)
Global environmental goals and the Paris agreement declared the need to avoid dangerous climate change by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases with an ultimate goal to transform today’s policies and reach climate neutrality before the end of the century. In the medium to long-term, climate policies imply rising CO 2 price and consequent financial risk for carbon-intensive producers. In this context, there is a need for tools to buffer CO 2 prices within the period of transition to greener technologies when the emission offsetting markets expose high volatility. Contracts for optional future purchase of carbon credits could provide emitters with a cost-efficient solution to address existing regulatory risks. At the same time, this would help to create much needed financing for the projects generating carbon credits in the future. This work presents the concept of a flobsion—a flexible option with benefit sharing—and demonstrates its advantages in terms of risk reduction for both seller and buyer as compared to both a “do nothing” strategy (offsetting at future market price) and a traditional option with a fixed strike price. The results are supported analytically and numerically, employing as a benchmark the dataset on historical CO 2 prices from the European Emission Trading Scheme. Flobsion has the potential to extend the traditional option in financial applications beyond compliance markets. View Full-Text
Keywords: CO2; emissions offsetting; options; financial risk; benefit sharing; climate policy CO2; emissions offsetting; options; financial risk; benefit sharing; climate policy
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Khabarov, N.; Lubowski, R.; Krasovskii, A.; Obersteiner, M. Flobsion—Flexible Option with Benefit Sharing. Int. J. Financial Stud. 2019, 7, 22.

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