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The Prescribing and Education of Naloxone in a Large Academic Medical Center

College of Pharmacy, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Michigan Medicine Pharmacy Innovations and Partnerships, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmacy 2020, 8(1), 31;
Received: 16 January 2020 / Revised: 24 February 2020 / Accepted: 26 February 2020 / Published: 5 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Pharmacy)
The opioid epidemic has led to increased needs for opioid reversal agents which require education and counseling for proper use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outpatient naloxone prescribing and education practices at an academic medical center to understand the current state and inform quality improvement measures. This retrospective chart review study included 439 patients that were at least 18 years old and received an outpatient prescription for naloxone between 1 July 2017 and 30 June 2018. Descriptive and demographic data were collected. The primary endpoint was whether an indication for naloxone and education on administration were documented when naloxone was initially prescribed to patients. Overall, 39% of naloxone prescriptions did not have an indication for prescribing listed in the medical record. Of those with a documented indication, concomitant benzodiazepines and history of overdose or substance abuse were most common (22% and 14%). The average morphine milligram equivalents were 165. Additionally, 69% of dispenses did not have documentation that the patient or a caregiver received education regarding the use and administration of naloxone. These findings suggest that patients are receiving naloxone for appropriate indications. Documentation of medication education is needed to ensure it is occurring and that patients are informed. View Full-Text
Keywords: naloxone; education; indication; pharmacists; opioid epidemic naloxone; education; indication; pharmacists; opioid epidemic
MDPI and ACS Style

Miller, S.; Williams, L.; Thompson, A.N. The Prescribing and Education of Naloxone in a Large Academic Medical Center. Pharmacy 2020, 8, 31.

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