2. Examination of Bureau of Labor Statistics Data
3.1. Economics and Policy
Conflicts of Interest
- Bureau UC. Older People Projected to Outnumber Children. The United States Census Bureau. Available online: https://www.census.gov/newsroom/press-releases/2018/cb18-41-population-projections.html (accessed on 7 October 2018).
- Watanabe, J.H.; McInnis, T.; Hirsch, J.D. Cost of Prescription Drug–Related Morbidity and Mortality. Ann. Pharmacother. 2018, 52, 829–837. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Yu, J.; Shah, B.M.; Ip, E.J.; Chan, J. A Markov Model of the Cost-Effectiveness of Pharmacist Care for Diabetes in Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases: Evidence from Kaiser Permanente Northern California. J. Manag. Care Pharm. 2013, 19, 102–114. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Mazzolini, T.A.; Icons, B.K.; Schell, E.C.; Seifert, C.F. Lipid Levels and Use of Lipid-Lowering Drugs for Patients in Pharmacist-Managed Lipid Clinics Versus Usual Care in 2 VA Medical Centers. J. Manag. Care Pharm. 2005, 11, 763–771. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Bill Text—AB-1131 Medi-Cal: Comprehensive Medication Management. Available online: https://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billNavClient.xhtml?bill_id=201920200AB1131 (accessed on 23 August 2019).
- Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Bureau of Health Workforce. Allied Health Workforce Projections, 2016–2030: Pharmacists; HRSA Bureau of Health Workforce: North Bethesda, MD, USA, 2018; 3p.
- US Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, National Center for Health Workforce Analysis. State-Level Projections of Supply and Demand for Behavioral Health Occupations: 2016–2030; US Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, National Center for Health Workforce Analysis: Rockville, MD, USA, 2018. Available online: https://bhw.hrsa.gov/sites/default/files/bhw/health-workforce-analysis/research/projections/technical-documentation-health-workforce-simulation-model.pdf. (accessed on 15 September 2019).
- Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Home. Available online: https://meps.ahrq.gov/mepsweb/index.jsp (accessed on 3 October 2018).
- Pharmacists: Occupational Outlook Handbook. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Available online: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/pharmacists.htm (accessed on 3 October 2018).
- Brown, D.L. A Looming Joblessness Crisis for New Pharmacy Graduates and the Implications It Holds for the Academy. Am. J. Pharm. Educ. 2013, 77, 90. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Gurwitz, J.H.; Pearson, S.D. Novel Therapies for an Aging Population: Grappling with Price, Value, and Affordability. JAMA 2019, 321, 1567–1568. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Mathews, A.W.; Evans, M. Flurry of Health-Care Deals Reflects Shift Away from Hospitals. Wall Str. J. 20 December 2017. Available online: https://www.wsj.com/articles/as-medical-care-shifts-out-of-hospitals-companies-plan-deals-1513716507(accessed on 20 December 2017).
- Hough, J. How CVS Wants to Fix Health Care—And Why It’s Time to Buy the Stock. Available online: https://www.barrons.com/articles/cvs-stock-health-care-51555105435 (accessed on 26 August 2019).
- HealthPayerIntelligence. Top 5 Largest Health Insurance Payers in the United States. HealthPayerIntelligence. Available online: https://healthpayerintelligence.com/news/top-5-largest-health-insurance-payers-in-the-united-states (accessed on 26 August 2019).
- Budnitz, D.S.; Pollock, D.A.; Weidenbach, K.N.; Mendelsohn, A.B.; Schroeder, T.J.; Annest, J.L. National surveillance of emergency department visits for outpatient adverse drug events. JAMA 2006, 296, 1858–1866. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Budnitz, D.S.; Lovegrove, M.C.; Shehab, N.; Richards, C.L. Emergency hospitalizations for adverse drug events in older Americans. N. Engl. J. Med. 2011, 365, 2002–2012. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Lentz, R.; Benson, A.B.; Kircher, S. Financial toxicity in cancer care: Prevalence, causes, consequences, and reduction strategies. J. Surg. Oncol. 2019, 120, 85–92. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Wu, B.; Kirzinger, A.; Brodie, M. Kaiser Health Tracking Poll: September 2016. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2016. Available online: https://www.kff.org/health-costs/report/kaiser-health-tracking-poll-september-2016/ (accessed on 25 August 2019).
- Johansen, M.E.; Richardson, C. Estimation of Potential Savings Through Therapeutic Substitution. JAMA Intern. Med. 2016, 176, 769–775. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Ross, J.S. Therapeutic Substitution—Should It Be Systematic or Automatic? JAMA Intern. Med. 2016, 176, 776. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Watanabe, J.H.; Chau, D.L.; Hirsch, J.D. Federal and Individual Spending on the 10 Costliest Medications in Medicare Part D from 2011 to 2015. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 2018, 66, 1621–1624. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- More States Address Pharmacists’ Provider Status Recognition. Available online: https://www.pharmacist.com/more-states-address-pharmacists-provider-status-recognition (accessed on 26 August 2019).
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Collaborative Practice Agreements and Pharmacists’ Patient Care Services: A Resource for Pharmacists; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Atlanta, GA, USA, 2013; 8p.
- National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Board on Health Sciences Policy; Committee on Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder. Medications for Opioid Use Disorder Save Lives; National Academies Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Chung, G.C.; Marottoli, R.A.; Cooney, L.M.; Rhee, T.G. Cost-Related Medication Nonadherence Among Older Adults: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sample. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 2019. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Fotin-Mleczek, M.; Zanzinger, K.; Heidenreich, R.; Lorenz, C.; Thess, A.; Duchardt, K.M.; Kallen, K.J. Highly potent mRNA based cancer vaccines represent an attractive platform for combination therapies supporting an improved therapeutic effect. J. Gene Med. 2012, 14, 428–439. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Nathan-Kazis, J. 2 Biotech Companies Are Chasing the Next Frontier in Treating Disease. But Will It Work? Available online: https://www.barrons.com/articles/mrna-is-the-next-frontier-in-treating-disease-but-will-it-work-51567205845 (accessed on 9 September 2019).
- California State Board of Pharmacy. Advanced Practice Pharmacist Application. Available online: https://pharmacy.ca.gov/forms/app_app_pkt.pdf (accessed on 1 September 2019).
- Pittenger, A.L.; Chapman, S.A.; Frail, C.K.; Moon, J.Y.; Undeberg, M.R.; Orzoff, J.H. Entrustable Professional Activities for Pharmacy Practice. Am. J. Pharm. Educ. 2016, 80. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Merit-Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) Overview—QPP. Available online: https://qpp.cms.gov/mips/overview (accessed on 10 September 2019).
- Lotvin, A.M.; Shrank, W.H.; Singh, S.C.; Falit, B.P.; Brennan, T.A. Specialty Medications: Traditional and Novel Tools Can Address Rising Spending on These Costly Drugs. Health Aff. (Millwood) 2014, 33, 1736–1744. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Bates, I.; John, C.; Bruno, A.; Fu, P.; Aliabadi, S. An analysis of the global pharmacy workforce capacity. Hum. Resour. Health. 2016, 14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
© 2019 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).