Next Article in Journal
Knowledge and Practice of Pharmacists toward Antimicrobial Stewardship in Pakistan
Previous Article in Journal
The Role of Pharmacists in General Practice in Asthma Management: A Pilot Study
Open AccessArticle

Implementing Clinical Pharmacogenomics in the Classroom: Student Pharmacist Impressions of an Educational Intervention Including Personal Genotyping

Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmacy 2018, 6(4), 115;
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 28 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student / Practitioner Training)
Pharmacogenomics provides a personalized approach to pharmacotherapy by using genetic information to guide drug dosing and selection. However, partly due to lack of education, pharmacogenomic testing has not been fully implemented in clinical practice. With pharmacotherapy training and patient accessibility, pharmacists are ideally suited to apply pharmacogenomics to patient care. Student pharmacists (n = 222) participated in an educational intervention that included voluntary personal genotyping using 23andMe. Of these, 31% of students completed both pre- and post-educational interventions to evaluate their attitudes and confidence towards the use of pharmacogenomics data in clinical decision making, and 55% of this paired subset obtained personal genotyping. McNemar’s test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to analyze responses. Following the educational intervention, students regardless of genotyping were more likely to recommend personal genotyping (36% post-educational intervention versus 19% pre-educational intervention, p = 0.0032), more confident in using pharmacogenomics in the management of drug therapy (51% post-educational intervention versus 29% pre-educational intervention, p = 0.0045), and more likely to believe that personalized genomics would have an important role in their future pharmacy career (90% post-educational intervention versus 51% pre-educational intervention, p = 0.0072) compared to before receiving the educational intervention. This educational intervention positively influenced students’ attitudes and confidence regarding pharmacogenomics in the clinical setting. Future studies will examine the use of next-generation sequencing assays that selectively examine pharmacogenes in the education of student pharmacists. View Full-Text
Keywords: personalized medicine; pharmacogenomics; genotyping personalized medicine; pharmacogenomics; genotyping
MDPI and ACS Style

Frick, A.; Benton, C.; Suzuki, O.; Dong, O.; Howard, R.; El-Sabae, H.; Wiltshire, T. Implementing Clinical Pharmacogenomics in the Classroom: Student Pharmacist Impressions of an Educational Intervention Including Personal Genotyping. Pharmacy 2018, 6, 115.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop