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Article

Acquisition, Loss and Innovation in Chuquisaca Quechua—What Happened to Evidential Marking?

Language Department, Roxbury Community College, Boston, MA 02120, USA
Academic Editors: José Camacho and Liliana Sánchez
Languages 2021, 6(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages6020076
Received: 2 February 2021 / Revised: 22 March 2021 / Accepted: 26 March 2021 / Published: 19 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indigenous Languages of the Americas)
Variation among closely related languages may reveal the inner workings of language acquisition, loss and innovation. This study of the existing literature and of selected interviews from recent narrative corpora compares the marking of evidentiality and epistemic modality in Chuquisaca, Bolivian Quechua with its closely related variety in Cuzco, Peru and investigates three hypotheses: that morpho-syntactic attrition proceeds in reverse order of child language acquisition, that convergence characterizes the emergence of grammatical forms different from L1 and L2 in contact situations, and that the Quechua languages are undergoing typological shift toward more isolating morphology. It appears that reportive -sis disappeared first in Bolivia, with eyewitness/validator -min retaining only the validator function. This finding seems to concord with reverse acquisition since it has previously been claimed that epistemic marking is acquired earlier than evidential marking in Cuzco. Meanwhile, Spanish and Quechua in nearby Cochabamba are claimed to mark reportive evidentiality via freestanding verbs of saying. I explore the reportive use of ñiy ‘to say’ in Chuquisaca as compared to Cochabamba and Cuzco and suggest the need for comparative statistical studies of evidential and epistemic marking in Southern Quechua. View Full-Text
Keywords: Quechua; acquisition; attrition; convergence; typological shift; bilingualism; evidentiality Quechua; acquisition; attrition; convergence; typological shift; bilingualism; evidentiality
MDPI and ACS Style

Kalt, S.E. Acquisition, Loss and Innovation in Chuquisaca Quechua—What Happened to Evidential Marking? Languages 2021, 6, 76. https://doi.org/10.3390/languages6020076

AMA Style

Kalt SE. Acquisition, Loss and Innovation in Chuquisaca Quechua—What Happened to Evidential Marking? Languages. 2021; 6(2):76. https://doi.org/10.3390/languages6020076

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kalt, Susan E. 2021. "Acquisition, Loss and Innovation in Chuquisaca Quechua—What Happened to Evidential Marking?" Languages 6, no. 2: 76. https://doi.org/10.3390/languages6020076

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